The Moon is the nearest body to us in the Solar System, and as a consequence of the Apollo missions is the only extra-terrestrial object that has yet been explored directly by humans. As a consequence of that exploration by both manned and unmanned spacecraft, we now know a great deal about our nearest celestial neighbor.
"I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before
this decade is out, of landing
a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth. No single space
program in this period will be
more impressive to mankind, or more important in the long-range exploration of
space; and none will be
so difficult or expensive to accomplish."
". . . t minus 15 seconds;
guidance is internal . . . 12 - 11 - 10 - 9 . . . ignition sequence
start . . . 6 - 5 - 4 - 3 - 2 - 1 - 0 . . . all engines running . . .
Lift-off! We have a lift-off ! . . ."
Here is an interactive viewer which displays views of the Moon from the Earth, Sun, night side, above named formations on the lunar surface, or as a map showing day and night (Credit: John Walker).