Keyword Parameters

In [1]:
from graphics import GraphWin
In [4]:
win = GraphWin()
win.close()
In [3]:
help(GraphWin)
Help on class GraphWin in module graphics:

class GraphWin(tkinter.Canvas)
 |  A GraphWin is a toplevel window for displaying graphics.
 |  
 |  Method resolution order:
 |      GraphWin
 |      tkinter.Canvas
 |      tkinter.Widget
 |      tkinter.BaseWidget
 |      tkinter.Misc
 |      tkinter.Pack
 |      tkinter.Place
 |      tkinter.Grid
 |      tkinter.XView
 |      tkinter.YView
 |      builtins.object
 |  
 |  Methods defined here:
 |  
 |  __init__(self, title='Graphics Window', width=200, height=200, autoflush=True)
 |      Construct a canvas widget with the parent MASTER.
 |      
 |      Valid resource names: background, bd, bg, borderwidth, closeenough,
 |      confine, cursor, height, highlightbackground, highlightcolor,
 |      highlightthickness, insertbackground, insertborderwidth,
 |      insertofftime, insertontime, insertwidth, offset, relief,
 |      scrollregion, selectbackground, selectborderwidth, selectforeground,
 |      state, takefocus, width, xscrollcommand, xscrollincrement,
 |      yscrollcommand, yscrollincrement.
 |  
 |  __repr__(self)
 |      Return repr(self).
 |  
 |  __str__(self)
 |      Return the window path name of this widget.
 |  
 |  addItem(self, item)
 |  
 |  checkKey(self)
 |      Return last key pressed or None if no key pressed since last call
 |  
 |  checkMouse(self)
 |      Return last mouse click or None if mouse has
 |      not been clicked since last call
 |  
 |  close(self)
 |      Close the window
 |  
 |  delItem(self, item)
 |  
 |  flush(self)
 |      Update drawing to the window
 |  
 |  getHeight(self)
 |      Return the height of the window
 |  
 |  getKey(self)
 |      Wait for user to press a key and return it as a string.
 |  
 |  getMouse(self)
 |      Wait for mouse click and return Point object representing
 |      the click
 |  
 |  getWidth(self)
 |      Return the width of the window
 |  
 |  isClosed(self)
 |  
 |  isOpen(self)
 |  
 |  plot(self, x, y, color='black')
 |      Set pixel (x,y) to the given color
 |  
 |  plotPixel(self, x, y, color='black')
 |      Set pixel raw (independent of window coordinates) pixel
 |      (x,y) to color
 |  
 |  redraw(self)
 |  
 |  setBackground(self, color)
 |      Set background color of the window
 |  
 |  setCoords(self, x1, y1, x2, y2)
 |      Set coordinates of window to run from (x1,y1) in the
 |      lower-left corner to (x2,y2) in the upper-right corner.
 |  
 |  setMouseHandler(self, func)
 |  
 |  toScreen(self, x, y)
 |  
 |  toWorld(self, x, y)
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Methods inherited from tkinter.Canvas:
 |  
 |  addtag(self, *args)
 |      Internal function.
 |  
 |  addtag_above(self, newtag, tagOrId)
 |      Add tag NEWTAG to all items above TAGORID.
 |  
 |  addtag_all(self, newtag)
 |      Add tag NEWTAG to all items.
 |  
 |  addtag_below(self, newtag, tagOrId)
 |      Add tag NEWTAG to all items below TAGORID.
 |  
 |  addtag_closest(self, newtag, x, y, halo=None, start=None)
 |      Add tag NEWTAG to item which is closest to pixel at X, Y.
 |      If several match take the top-most.
 |      All items closer than HALO are considered overlapping (all are
 |      closests). If START is specified the next below this tag is taken.
 |  
 |  addtag_enclosed(self, newtag, x1, y1, x2, y2)
 |      Add tag NEWTAG to all items in the rectangle defined
 |      by X1,Y1,X2,Y2.
 |  
 |  addtag_overlapping(self, newtag, x1, y1, x2, y2)
 |      Add tag NEWTAG to all items which overlap the rectangle
 |      defined by X1,Y1,X2,Y2.
 |  
 |  addtag_withtag(self, newtag, tagOrId)
 |      Add tag NEWTAG to all items with TAGORID.
 |  
 |  bbox(self, *args)
 |      Return a tuple of X1,Y1,X2,Y2 coordinates for a rectangle
 |      which encloses all items with tags specified as arguments.
 |  
 |  canvasx(self, screenx, gridspacing=None)
 |      Return the canvas x coordinate of pixel position SCREENX rounded
 |      to nearest multiple of GRIDSPACING units.
 |  
 |  canvasy(self, screeny, gridspacing=None)
 |      Return the canvas y coordinate of pixel position SCREENY rounded
 |      to nearest multiple of GRIDSPACING units.
 |  
 |  coords(self, *args)
 |      Return a list of coordinates for the item given in ARGS.
 |  
 |  create_arc(self, *args, **kw)
 |      Create arc shaped region with coordinates x1,y1,x2,y2.
 |  
 |  create_bitmap(self, *args, **kw)
 |      Create bitmap with coordinates x1,y1.
 |  
 |  create_image(self, *args, **kw)
 |      Create image item with coordinates x1,y1.
 |  
 |  create_line(self, *args, **kw)
 |      Create line with coordinates x1,y1,...,xn,yn.
 |  
 |  create_oval(self, *args, **kw)
 |      Create oval with coordinates x1,y1,x2,y2.
 |  
 |  create_polygon(self, *args, **kw)
 |      Create polygon with coordinates x1,y1,...,xn,yn.
 |  
 |  create_rectangle(self, *args, **kw)
 |      Create rectangle with coordinates x1,y1,x2,y2.
 |  
 |  create_text(self, *args, **kw)
 |      Create text with coordinates x1,y1.
 |  
 |  create_window(self, *args, **kw)
 |      Create window with coordinates x1,y1,x2,y2.
 |  
 |  dchars(self, *args)
 |      Delete characters of text items identified by tag or id in ARGS (possibly
 |      several times) from FIRST to LAST character (including).
 |  
 |  delete(self, *args)
 |      Delete items identified by all tag or ids contained in ARGS.
 |  
 |  dtag(self, *args)
 |      Delete tag or id given as last arguments in ARGS from items
 |      identified by first argument in ARGS.
 |  
 |  find(self, *args)
 |      Internal function.
 |  
 |  find_above(self, tagOrId)
 |      Return items above TAGORID.
 |  
 |  find_all(self)
 |      Return all items.
 |  
 |  find_below(self, tagOrId)
 |      Return all items below TAGORID.
 |  
 |  find_closest(self, x, y, halo=None, start=None)
 |      Return item which is closest to pixel at X, Y.
 |      If several match take the top-most.
 |      All items closer than HALO are considered overlapping (all are
 |      closest). If START is specified the next below this tag is taken.
 |  
 |  find_enclosed(self, x1, y1, x2, y2)
 |      Return all items in rectangle defined
 |      by X1,Y1,X2,Y2.
 |  
 |  find_overlapping(self, x1, y1, x2, y2)
 |      Return all items which overlap the rectangle
 |      defined by X1,Y1,X2,Y2.
 |  
 |  find_withtag(self, tagOrId)
 |      Return all items with TAGORID.
 |  
 |  focus(self, *args)
 |      Set focus to the first item specified in ARGS.
 |  
 |  gettags(self, *args)
 |      Return tags associated with the first item specified in ARGS.
 |  
 |  icursor(self, *args)
 |      Set cursor at position POS in the item identified by TAGORID.
 |      In ARGS TAGORID must be first.
 |  
 |  index(self, *args)
 |      Return position of cursor as integer in item specified in ARGS.
 |  
 |  insert(self, *args)
 |      Insert TEXT in item TAGORID at position POS. ARGS must
 |      be TAGORID POS TEXT.
 |  
 |  itemcget(self, tagOrId, option)
 |      Return the resource value for an OPTION for item TAGORID.
 |  
 |  itemconfig = itemconfigure(self, tagOrId, cnf=None, **kw)
 |      Configure resources of an item TAGORID.
 |      
 |      The values for resources are specified as keyword
 |      arguments. To get an overview about
 |      the allowed keyword arguments call the method without arguments.
 |  
 |  itemconfigure(self, tagOrId, cnf=None, **kw)
 |      Configure resources of an item TAGORID.
 |      
 |      The values for resources are specified as keyword
 |      arguments. To get an overview about
 |      the allowed keyword arguments call the method without arguments.
 |  
 |  lift = tag_raise(self, *args)
 |      Raise an item TAGORID given in ARGS
 |      (optional above another item).
 |  
 |  lower = tag_lower(self, *args)
 |      Lower an item TAGORID given in ARGS
 |      (optional below another item).
 |  
 |  move(self, *args)
 |      Move an item TAGORID given in ARGS.
 |  
 |  postscript(self, cnf={}, **kw)
 |      Print the contents of the canvas to a postscript
 |      file. Valid options: colormap, colormode, file, fontmap,
 |      height, pageanchor, pageheight, pagewidth, pagex, pagey,
 |      rotate, width, x, y.
 |  
 |  scale(self, *args)
 |      Scale item TAGORID with XORIGIN, YORIGIN, XSCALE, YSCALE.
 |  
 |  scan_dragto(self, x, y, gain=10)
 |      Adjust the view of the canvas to GAIN times the
 |      difference between X and Y and the coordinates given in
 |      scan_mark.
 |  
 |  scan_mark(self, x, y)
 |      Remember the current X, Y coordinates.
 |  
 |  select_adjust(self, tagOrId, index)
 |      Adjust the end of the selection near the cursor of an item TAGORID to index.
 |  
 |  select_clear(self)
 |      Clear the selection if it is in this widget.
 |  
 |  select_from(self, tagOrId, index)
 |      Set the fixed end of a selection in item TAGORID to INDEX.
 |  
 |  select_item(self)
 |      Return the item which has the selection.
 |  
 |  select_to(self, tagOrId, index)
 |      Set the variable end of a selection in item TAGORID to INDEX.
 |  
 |  tag_bind(self, tagOrId, sequence=None, func=None, add=None)
 |      Bind to all items with TAGORID at event SEQUENCE a call to function FUNC.
 |      
 |      An additional boolean parameter ADD specifies whether FUNC will be
 |      called additionally to the other bound function or whether it will
 |      replace the previous function. See bind for the return value.
 |  
 |  tag_lower(self, *args)
 |      Lower an item TAGORID given in ARGS
 |      (optional below another item).
 |  
 |  tag_raise(self, *args)
 |      Raise an item TAGORID given in ARGS
 |      (optional above another item).
 |  
 |  tag_unbind(self, tagOrId, sequence, funcid=None)
 |      Unbind for all items with TAGORID for event SEQUENCE  the
 |      function identified with FUNCID.
 |  
 |  tkraise = tag_raise(self, *args)
 |      Raise an item TAGORID given in ARGS
 |      (optional above another item).
 |  
 |  type(self, tagOrId)
 |      Return the type of the item TAGORID.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Methods inherited from tkinter.BaseWidget:
 |  
 |  destroy(self)
 |      Destroy this and all descendants widgets.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Methods inherited from tkinter.Misc:
 |  
 |  __getitem__ = cget(self, key)
 |      Return the resource value for a KEY given as string.
 |  
 |  __setitem__(self, key, value)
 |  
 |  after(self, ms, func=None, *args)
 |      Call function once after given time.
 |      
 |      MS specifies the time in milliseconds. FUNC gives the
 |      function which shall be called. Additional parameters
 |      are given as parameters to the function call.  Return
 |      identifier to cancel scheduling with after_cancel.
 |  
 |  after_cancel(self, id)
 |      Cancel scheduling of function identified with ID.
 |      
 |      Identifier returned by after or after_idle must be
 |      given as first parameter.
 |  
 |  after_idle(self, func, *args)
 |      Call FUNC once if the Tcl main loop has no event to
 |      process.
 |      
 |      Return an identifier to cancel the scheduling with
 |      after_cancel.
 |  
 |  anchor = grid_anchor(self, anchor=None)
 |      The anchor value controls how to place the grid within the
 |      master when no row/column has any weight.
 |      
 |      The default anchor is nw.
 |  
 |  bell(self, displayof=0)
 |      Ring a display's bell.
 |  
 |  bind(self, sequence=None, func=None, add=None)
 |      Bind to this widget at event SEQUENCE a call to function FUNC.
 |      
 |      SEQUENCE is a string of concatenated event
 |      patterns. An event pattern is of the form
 |      <MODIFIER-MODIFIER-TYPE-DETAIL> where MODIFIER is one
 |      of Control, Mod2, M2, Shift, Mod3, M3, Lock, Mod4, M4,
 |      Button1, B1, Mod5, M5 Button2, B2, Meta, M, Button3,
 |      B3, Alt, Button4, B4, Double, Button5, B5 Triple,
 |      Mod1, M1. TYPE is one of Activate, Enter, Map,
 |      ButtonPress, Button, Expose, Motion, ButtonRelease
 |      FocusIn, MouseWheel, Circulate, FocusOut, Property,
 |      Colormap, Gravity Reparent, Configure, KeyPress, Key,
 |      Unmap, Deactivate, KeyRelease Visibility, Destroy,
 |      Leave and DETAIL is the button number for ButtonPress,
 |      ButtonRelease and DETAIL is the Keysym for KeyPress and
 |      KeyRelease. Examples are
 |      <Control-Button-1> for pressing Control and mouse button 1 or
 |      <Alt-A> for pressing A and the Alt key (KeyPress can be omitted).
 |      An event pattern can also be a virtual event of the form
 |      <<AString>> where AString can be arbitrary. This
 |      event can be generated by event_generate.
 |      If events are concatenated they must appear shortly
 |      after each other.
 |      
 |      FUNC will be called if the event sequence occurs with an
 |      instance of Event as argument. If the return value of FUNC is
 |      "break" no further bound function is invoked.
 |      
 |      An additional boolean parameter ADD specifies whether FUNC will
 |      be called additionally to the other bound function or whether
 |      it will replace the previous function.
 |      
 |      Bind will return an identifier to allow deletion of the bound function with
 |      unbind without memory leak.
 |      
 |      If FUNC or SEQUENCE is omitted the bound function or list
 |      of bound events are returned.
 |  
 |  bind_all(self, sequence=None, func=None, add=None)
 |      Bind to all widgets at an event SEQUENCE a call to function FUNC.
 |      An additional boolean parameter ADD specifies whether FUNC will
 |      be called additionally to the other bound function or whether
 |      it will replace the previous function. See bind for the return value.
 |  
 |  bind_class(self, className, sequence=None, func=None, add=None)
 |      Bind to widgets with bindtag CLASSNAME at event
 |      SEQUENCE a call of function FUNC. An additional
 |      boolean parameter ADD specifies whether FUNC will be
 |      called additionally to the other bound function or
 |      whether it will replace the previous function. See bind for
 |      the return value.
 |  
 |  bindtags(self, tagList=None)
 |      Set or get the list of bindtags for this widget.
 |      
 |      With no argument return the list of all bindtags associated with
 |      this widget. With a list of strings as argument the bindtags are
 |      set to this list. The bindtags determine in which order events are
 |      processed (see bind).
 |  
 |  cget(self, key)
 |      Return the resource value for a KEY given as string.
 |  
 |  clipboard_append(self, string, **kw)
 |      Append STRING to the Tk clipboard.
 |      
 |      A widget specified at the optional displayof keyword
 |      argument specifies the target display. The clipboard
 |      can be retrieved with selection_get.
 |  
 |  clipboard_clear(self, **kw)
 |      Clear the data in the Tk clipboard.
 |      
 |      A widget specified for the optional displayof keyword
 |      argument specifies the target display.
 |  
 |  clipboard_get(self, **kw)
 |      Retrieve data from the clipboard on window's display.
 |      
 |      The window keyword defaults to the root window of the Tkinter
 |      application.
 |      
 |      The type keyword specifies the form in which the data is
 |      to be returned and should be an atom name such as STRING
 |      or FILE_NAME.  Type defaults to STRING, except on X11, where the default
 |      is to try UTF8_STRING and fall back to STRING.
 |      
 |      This command is equivalent to:
 |      
 |      selection_get(CLIPBOARD)
 |  
 |  columnconfigure = grid_columnconfigure(self, index, cnf={}, **kw)
 |      Configure column INDEX of a grid.
 |      
 |      Valid resources are minsize (minimum size of the column),
 |      weight (how much does additional space propagate to this column)
 |      and pad (how much space to let additionally).
 |  
 |  config = configure(self, cnf=None, **kw)
 |      Configure resources of a widget.
 |      
 |      The values for resources are specified as keyword
 |      arguments. To get an overview about
 |      the allowed keyword arguments call the method keys.
 |  
 |  configure(self, cnf=None, **kw)
 |      Configure resources of a widget.
 |      
 |      The values for resources are specified as keyword
 |      arguments. To get an overview about
 |      the allowed keyword arguments call the method keys.
 |  
 |  deletecommand(self, name)
 |      Internal function.
 |      
 |      Delete the Tcl command provided in NAME.
 |  
 |  event_add(self, virtual, *sequences)
 |      Bind a virtual event VIRTUAL (of the form <<Name>>)
 |      to an event SEQUENCE such that the virtual event is triggered
 |      whenever SEQUENCE occurs.
 |  
 |  event_delete(self, virtual, *sequences)
 |      Unbind a virtual event VIRTUAL from SEQUENCE.
 |  
 |  event_generate(self, sequence, **kw)
 |      Generate an event SEQUENCE. Additional
 |      keyword arguments specify parameter of the event
 |      (e.g. x, y, rootx, rooty).
 |  
 |  event_info(self, virtual=None)
 |      Return a list of all virtual events or the information
 |      about the SEQUENCE bound to the virtual event VIRTUAL.
 |  
 |  focus_displayof(self)
 |      Return the widget which has currently the focus on the
 |      display where this widget is located.
 |      
 |      Return None if the application does not have the focus.
 |  
 |  focus_force(self)
 |      Direct input focus to this widget even if the
 |      application does not have the focus. Use with
 |      caution!
 |  
 |  focus_get(self)
 |      Return the widget which has currently the focus in the
 |      application.
 |      
 |      Use focus_displayof to allow working with several
 |      displays. Return None if application does not have
 |      the focus.
 |  
 |  focus_lastfor(self)
 |      Return the widget which would have the focus if top level
 |      for this widget gets the focus from the window manager.
 |  
 |  focus_set(self)
 |      Direct input focus to this widget.
 |      
 |      If the application currently does not have the focus
 |      this widget will get the focus if the application gets
 |      the focus through the window manager.
 |  
 |  getboolean(self, s)
 |      Return a boolean value for Tcl boolean values true and false given as parameter.
 |  
 |  getdouble(self, s)
 |  
 |  getint(self, s)
 |  
 |  getvar(self, name='PY_VAR')
 |      Return value of Tcl variable NAME.
 |  
 |  grab_current(self)
 |      Return widget which has currently the grab in this application
 |      or None.
 |  
 |  grab_release(self)
 |      Release grab for this widget if currently set.
 |  
 |  grab_set(self)
 |      Set grab for this widget.
 |      
 |      A grab directs all events to this and descendant
 |      widgets in the application.
 |  
 |  grab_set_global(self)
 |      Set global grab for this widget.
 |      
 |      A global grab directs all events to this and
 |      descendant widgets on the display. Use with caution -
 |      other applications do not get events anymore.
 |  
 |  grab_status(self)
 |      Return None, "local" or "global" if this widget has
 |      no, a local or a global grab.
 |  
 |  grid_anchor(self, anchor=None)
 |      The anchor value controls how to place the grid within the
 |      master when no row/column has any weight.
 |      
 |      The default anchor is nw.
 |  
 |  grid_bbox(self, column=None, row=None, col2=None, row2=None)
 |      Return a tuple of integer coordinates for the bounding
 |      box of this widget controlled by the geometry manager grid.
 |      
 |      If COLUMN, ROW is given the bounding box applies from
 |      the cell with row and column 0 to the specified
 |      cell. If COL2 and ROW2 are given the bounding box
 |      starts at that cell.
 |      
 |      The returned integers specify the offset of the upper left
 |      corner in the master widget and the width and height.
 |  
 |  grid_columnconfigure(self, index, cnf={}, **kw)
 |      Configure column INDEX of a grid.
 |      
 |      Valid resources are minsize (minimum size of the column),
 |      weight (how much does additional space propagate to this column)
 |      and pad (how much space to let additionally).
 |  
 |  grid_location(self, x, y)
 |      Return a tuple of column and row which identify the cell
 |      at which the pixel at position X and Y inside the master
 |      widget is located.
 |  
 |  grid_propagate(self, flag=['_noarg_'])
 |      Set or get the status for propagation of geometry information.
 |      
 |      A boolean argument specifies whether the geometry information
 |      of the slaves will determine the size of this widget. If no argument
 |      is given, the current setting will be returned.
 |  
 |  grid_rowconfigure(self, index, cnf={}, **kw)
 |      Configure row INDEX of a grid.
 |      
 |      Valid resources are minsize (minimum size of the row),
 |      weight (how much does additional space propagate to this row)
 |      and pad (how much space to let additionally).
 |  
 |  grid_size(self)
 |      Return a tuple of the number of column and rows in the grid.
 |  
 |  grid_slaves(self, row=None, column=None)
 |      Return a list of all slaves of this widget
 |      in its packing order.
 |  
 |  image_names(self)
 |      Return a list of all existing image names.
 |  
 |  image_types(self)
 |      Return a list of all available image types (e.g. photo bitmap).
 |  
 |  keys(self)
 |      Return a list of all resource names of this widget.
 |  
 |  mainloop(self, n=0)
 |      Call the mainloop of Tk.
 |  
 |  nametowidget(self, name)
 |      Return the Tkinter instance of a widget identified by
 |      its Tcl name NAME.
 |  
 |  option_add(self, pattern, value, priority=None)
 |      Set a VALUE (second parameter) for an option
 |      PATTERN (first parameter).
 |      
 |      An optional third parameter gives the numeric priority
 |      (defaults to 80).
 |  
 |  option_clear(self)
 |      Clear the option database.
 |      
 |      It will be reloaded if option_add is called.
 |  
 |  option_get(self, name, className)
 |      Return the value for an option NAME for this widget
 |      with CLASSNAME.
 |      
 |      Values with higher priority override lower values.
 |  
 |  option_readfile(self, fileName, priority=None)
 |      Read file FILENAME into the option database.
 |      
 |      An optional second parameter gives the numeric
 |      priority.
 |  
 |  pack_propagate(self, flag=['_noarg_'])
 |      Set or get the status for propagation of geometry information.
 |      
 |      A boolean argument specifies whether the geometry information
 |      of the slaves will determine the size of this widget. If no argument
 |      is given the current setting will be returned.
 |  
 |  pack_slaves(self)
 |      Return a list of all slaves of this widget
 |      in its packing order.
 |  
 |  place_slaves(self)
 |      Return a list of all slaves of this widget
 |      in its packing order.
 |  
 |  propagate = pack_propagate(self, flag=['_noarg_'])
 |      Set or get the status for propagation of geometry information.
 |      
 |      A boolean argument specifies whether the geometry information
 |      of the slaves will determine the size of this widget. If no argument
 |      is given the current setting will be returned.
 |  
 |  quit(self)
 |      Quit the Tcl interpreter. All widgets will be destroyed.
 |  
 |  register = _register(self, func, subst=None, needcleanup=1)
 |      Return a newly created Tcl function. If this
 |      function is called, the Python function FUNC will
 |      be executed. An optional function SUBST can
 |      be given which will be executed before FUNC.
 |  
 |  rowconfigure = grid_rowconfigure(self, index, cnf={}, **kw)
 |      Configure row INDEX of a grid.
 |      
 |      Valid resources are minsize (minimum size of the row),
 |      weight (how much does additional space propagate to this row)
 |      and pad (how much space to let additionally).
 |  
 |  selection_clear(self, **kw)
 |      Clear the current X selection.
 |  
 |  selection_get(self, **kw)
 |      Return the contents of the current X selection.
 |      
 |      A keyword parameter selection specifies the name of
 |      the selection and defaults to PRIMARY.  A keyword
 |      parameter displayof specifies a widget on the display
 |      to use. A keyword parameter type specifies the form of data to be
 |      fetched, defaulting to STRING except on X11, where UTF8_STRING is tried
 |      before STRING.
 |  
 |  selection_handle(self, command, **kw)
 |      Specify a function COMMAND to call if the X
 |      selection owned by this widget is queried by another
 |      application.
 |      
 |      This function must return the contents of the
 |      selection. The function will be called with the
 |      arguments OFFSET and LENGTH which allows the chunking
 |      of very long selections. The following keyword
 |      parameters can be provided:
 |      selection - name of the selection (default PRIMARY),
 |      type - type of the selection (e.g. STRING, FILE_NAME).
 |  
 |  selection_own(self, **kw)
 |      Become owner of X selection.
 |      
 |      A keyword parameter selection specifies the name of
 |      the selection (default PRIMARY).
 |  
 |  selection_own_get(self, **kw)
 |      Return owner of X selection.
 |      
 |      The following keyword parameter can
 |      be provided:
 |      selection - name of the selection (default PRIMARY),
 |      type - type of the selection (e.g. STRING, FILE_NAME).
 |  
 |  send(self, interp, cmd, *args)
 |      Send Tcl command CMD to different interpreter INTERP to be executed.
 |  
 |  setvar(self, name='PY_VAR', value='1')
 |      Set Tcl variable NAME to VALUE.
 |  
 |  size = grid_size(self)
 |      Return a tuple of the number of column and rows in the grid.
 |  
 |  slaves = pack_slaves(self)
 |      Return a list of all slaves of this widget
 |      in its packing order.
 |  
 |  tk_bisque(self)
 |      Change the color scheme to light brown as used in Tk 3.6 and before.
 |  
 |  tk_focusFollowsMouse(self)
 |      The widget under mouse will get automatically focus. Can not
 |      be disabled easily.
 |  
 |  tk_focusNext(self)
 |      Return the next widget in the focus order which follows
 |      widget which has currently the focus.
 |      
 |      The focus order first goes to the next child, then to
 |      the children of the child recursively and then to the
 |      next sibling which is higher in the stacking order.  A
 |      widget is omitted if it has the takefocus resource set
 |      to 0.
 |  
 |  tk_focusPrev(self)
 |      Return previous widget in the focus order. See tk_focusNext for details.
 |  
 |  tk_setPalette(self, *args, **kw)
 |      Set a new color scheme for all widget elements.
 |      
 |      A single color as argument will cause that all colors of Tk
 |      widget elements are derived from this.
 |      Alternatively several keyword parameters and its associated
 |      colors can be given. The following keywords are valid:
 |      activeBackground, foreground, selectColor,
 |      activeForeground, highlightBackground, selectBackground,
 |      background, highlightColor, selectForeground,
 |      disabledForeground, insertBackground, troughColor.
 |  
 |  tk_strictMotif(self, boolean=None)
 |      Set Tcl internal variable, whether the look and feel
 |      should adhere to Motif.
 |      
 |      A parameter of 1 means adhere to Motif (e.g. no color
 |      change if mouse passes over slider).
 |      Returns the set value.
 |  
 |  unbind(self, sequence, funcid=None)
 |      Unbind for this widget for event SEQUENCE  the
 |      function identified with FUNCID.
 |  
 |  unbind_all(self, sequence)
 |      Unbind for all widgets for event SEQUENCE all functions.
 |  
 |  unbind_class(self, className, sequence)
 |      Unbind for all widgets with bindtag CLASSNAME for event SEQUENCE
 |      all functions.
 |  
 |  update(self)
 |      Enter event loop until all pending events have been processed by Tcl.
 |  
 |  update_idletasks(self)
 |      Enter event loop until all idle callbacks have been called. This
 |      will update the display of windows but not process events caused by
 |      the user.
 |  
 |  wait_variable(self, name='PY_VAR')
 |      Wait until the variable is modified.
 |      
 |      A parameter of type IntVar, StringVar, DoubleVar or
 |      BooleanVar must be given.
 |  
 |  wait_visibility(self, window=None)
 |      Wait until the visibility of a WIDGET changes
 |      (e.g. it appears).
 |      
 |      If no parameter is given self is used.
 |  
 |  wait_window(self, window=None)
 |      Wait until a WIDGET is destroyed.
 |      
 |      If no parameter is given self is used.
 |  
 |  waitvar = wait_variable(self, name='PY_VAR')
 |      Wait until the variable is modified.
 |      
 |      A parameter of type IntVar, StringVar, DoubleVar or
 |      BooleanVar must be given.
 |  
 |  winfo_atom(self, name, displayof=0)
 |      Return integer which represents atom NAME.
 |  
 |  winfo_atomname(self, id, displayof=0)
 |      Return name of atom with identifier ID.
 |  
 |  winfo_cells(self)
 |      Return number of cells in the colormap for this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_children(self)
 |      Return a list of all widgets which are children of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_class(self)
 |      Return window class name of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_colormapfull(self)
 |      Return true if at the last color request the colormap was full.
 |  
 |  winfo_containing(self, rootX, rootY, displayof=0)
 |      Return the widget which is at the root coordinates ROOTX, ROOTY.
 |  
 |  winfo_depth(self)
 |      Return the number of bits per pixel.
 |  
 |  winfo_exists(self)
 |      Return true if this widget exists.
 |  
 |  winfo_fpixels(self, number)
 |      Return the number of pixels for the given distance NUMBER
 |      (e.g. "3c") as float.
 |  
 |  winfo_geometry(self)
 |      Return geometry string for this widget in the form "widthxheight+X+Y".
 |  
 |  winfo_height(self)
 |      Return height of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_id(self)
 |      Return identifier ID for this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_interps(self, displayof=0)
 |      Return the name of all Tcl interpreters for this display.
 |  
 |  winfo_ismapped(self)
 |      Return true if this widget is mapped.
 |  
 |  winfo_manager(self)
 |      Return the window manager name for this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_name(self)
 |      Return the name of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_parent(self)
 |      Return the name of the parent of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_pathname(self, id, displayof=0)
 |      Return the pathname of the widget given by ID.
 |  
 |  winfo_pixels(self, number)
 |      Rounded integer value of winfo_fpixels.
 |  
 |  winfo_pointerx(self)
 |      Return the x coordinate of the pointer on the root window.
 |  
 |  winfo_pointerxy(self)
 |      Return a tuple of x and y coordinates of the pointer on the root window.
 |  
 |  winfo_pointery(self)
 |      Return the y coordinate of the pointer on the root window.
 |  
 |  winfo_reqheight(self)
 |      Return requested height of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_reqwidth(self)
 |      Return requested width of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_rgb(self, color)
 |      Return tuple of decimal values for red, green, blue for
 |      COLOR in this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_rootx(self)
 |      Return x coordinate of upper left corner of this widget on the
 |      root window.
 |  
 |  winfo_rooty(self)
 |      Return y coordinate of upper left corner of this widget on the
 |      root window.
 |  
 |  winfo_screen(self)
 |      Return the screen name of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_screencells(self)
 |      Return the number of the cells in the colormap of the screen
 |      of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_screendepth(self)
 |      Return the number of bits per pixel of the root window of the
 |      screen of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_screenheight(self)
 |      Return the number of pixels of the height of the screen of this widget
 |      in pixel.
 |  
 |  winfo_screenmmheight(self)
 |      Return the number of pixels of the height of the screen of
 |      this widget in mm.
 |  
 |  winfo_screenmmwidth(self)
 |      Return the number of pixels of the width of the screen of
 |      this widget in mm.
 |  
 |  winfo_screenvisual(self)
 |      Return one of the strings directcolor, grayscale, pseudocolor,
 |      staticcolor, staticgray, or truecolor for the default
 |      colormodel of this screen.
 |  
 |  winfo_screenwidth(self)
 |      Return the number of pixels of the width of the screen of
 |      this widget in pixel.
 |  
 |  winfo_server(self)
 |      Return information of the X-Server of the screen of this widget in
 |      the form "XmajorRminor vendor vendorVersion".
 |  
 |  winfo_toplevel(self)
 |      Return the toplevel widget of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_viewable(self)
 |      Return true if the widget and all its higher ancestors are mapped.
 |  
 |  winfo_visual(self)
 |      Return one of the strings directcolor, grayscale, pseudocolor,
 |      staticcolor, staticgray, or truecolor for the
 |      colormodel of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_visualid(self)
 |      Return the X identifier for the visual for this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_visualsavailable(self, includeids=False)
 |      Return a list of all visuals available for the screen
 |      of this widget.
 |      
 |      Each item in the list consists of a visual name (see winfo_visual), a
 |      depth and if includeids is true is given also the X identifier.
 |  
 |  winfo_vrootheight(self)
 |      Return the height of the virtual root window associated with this
 |      widget in pixels. If there is no virtual root window return the
 |      height of the screen.
 |  
 |  winfo_vrootwidth(self)
 |      Return the width of the virtual root window associated with this
 |      widget in pixel. If there is no virtual root window return the
 |      width of the screen.
 |  
 |  winfo_vrootx(self)
 |      Return the x offset of the virtual root relative to the root
 |      window of the screen of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_vrooty(self)
 |      Return the y offset of the virtual root relative to the root
 |      window of the screen of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_width(self)
 |      Return the width of this widget.
 |  
 |  winfo_x(self)
 |      Return the x coordinate of the upper left corner of this widget
 |      in the parent.
 |  
 |  winfo_y(self)
 |      Return the y coordinate of the upper left corner of this widget
 |      in the parent.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Data descriptors inherited from tkinter.Misc:
 |  
 |  __dict__
 |      dictionary for instance variables (if defined)
 |  
 |  __weakref__
 |      list of weak references to the object (if defined)
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Methods inherited from tkinter.Pack:
 |  
 |  forget = pack_forget(self)
 |      Unmap this widget and do not use it for the packing order.
 |  
 |  info = pack_info(self)
 |      Return information about the packing options
 |      for this widget.
 |  
 |  pack = pack_configure(self, cnf={}, **kw)
 |      Pack a widget in the parent widget. Use as options:
 |      after=widget - pack it after you have packed widget
 |      anchor=NSEW (or subset) - position widget according to
 |                                given direction
 |      before=widget - pack it before you will pack widget
 |      expand=bool - expand widget if parent size grows
 |      fill=NONE or X or Y or BOTH - fill widget if widget grows
 |      in=master - use master to contain this widget
 |      in_=master - see 'in' option description
 |      ipadx=amount - add internal padding in x direction
 |      ipady=amount - add internal padding in y direction
 |      padx=amount - add padding in x direction
 |      pady=amount - add padding in y direction
 |      side=TOP or BOTTOM or LEFT or RIGHT -  where to add this widget.
 |  
 |  pack_configure(self, cnf={}, **kw)
 |      Pack a widget in the parent widget. Use as options:
 |      after=widget - pack it after you have packed widget
 |      anchor=NSEW (or subset) - position widget according to
 |                                given direction
 |      before=widget - pack it before you will pack widget
 |      expand=bool - expand widget if parent size grows
 |      fill=NONE or X or Y or BOTH - fill widget if widget grows
 |      in=master - use master to contain this widget
 |      in_=master - see 'in' option description
 |      ipadx=amount - add internal padding in x direction
 |      ipady=amount - add internal padding in y direction
 |      padx=amount - add padding in x direction
 |      pady=amount - add padding in y direction
 |      side=TOP or BOTTOM or LEFT or RIGHT -  where to add this widget.
 |  
 |  pack_forget(self)
 |      Unmap this widget and do not use it for the packing order.
 |  
 |  pack_info(self)
 |      Return information about the packing options
 |      for this widget.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Methods inherited from tkinter.Place:
 |  
 |  place = place_configure(self, cnf={}, **kw)
 |      Place a widget in the parent widget. Use as options:
 |      in=master - master relative to which the widget is placed
 |      in_=master - see 'in' option description
 |      x=amount - locate anchor of this widget at position x of master
 |      y=amount - locate anchor of this widget at position y of master
 |      relx=amount - locate anchor of this widget between 0.0 and 1.0
 |                    relative to width of master (1.0 is right edge)
 |      rely=amount - locate anchor of this widget between 0.0 and 1.0
 |                    relative to height of master (1.0 is bottom edge)
 |      anchor=NSEW (or subset) - position anchor according to given direction
 |      width=amount - width of this widget in pixel
 |      height=amount - height of this widget in pixel
 |      relwidth=amount - width of this widget between 0.0 and 1.0
 |                        relative to width of master (1.0 is the same width
 |                        as the master)
 |      relheight=amount - height of this widget between 0.0 and 1.0
 |                         relative to height of master (1.0 is the same
 |                         height as the master)
 |      bordermode="inside" or "outside" - whether to take border width of
 |                                         master widget into account
 |  
 |  place_configure(self, cnf={}, **kw)
 |      Place a widget in the parent widget. Use as options:
 |      in=master - master relative to which the widget is placed
 |      in_=master - see 'in' option description
 |      x=amount - locate anchor of this widget at position x of master
 |      y=amount - locate anchor of this widget at position y of master
 |      relx=amount - locate anchor of this widget between 0.0 and 1.0
 |                    relative to width of master (1.0 is right edge)
 |      rely=amount - locate anchor of this widget between 0.0 and 1.0
 |                    relative to height of master (1.0 is bottom edge)
 |      anchor=NSEW (or subset) - position anchor according to given direction
 |      width=amount - width of this widget in pixel
 |      height=amount - height of this widget in pixel
 |      relwidth=amount - width of this widget between 0.0 and 1.0
 |                        relative to width of master (1.0 is the same width
 |                        as the master)
 |      relheight=amount - height of this widget between 0.0 and 1.0
 |                         relative to height of master (1.0 is the same
 |                         height as the master)
 |      bordermode="inside" or "outside" - whether to take border width of
 |                                         master widget into account
 |  
 |  place_forget(self)
 |      Unmap this widget.
 |  
 |  place_info(self)
 |      Return information about the placing options
 |      for this widget.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Methods inherited from tkinter.Grid:
 |  
 |  grid = grid_configure(self, cnf={}, **kw)
 |      Position a widget in the parent widget in a grid. Use as options:
 |      column=number - use cell identified with given column (starting with 0)
 |      columnspan=number - this widget will span several columns
 |      in=master - use master to contain this widget
 |      in_=master - see 'in' option description
 |      ipadx=amount - add internal padding in x direction
 |      ipady=amount - add internal padding in y direction
 |      padx=amount - add padding in x direction
 |      pady=amount - add padding in y direction
 |      row=number - use cell identified with given row (starting with 0)
 |      rowspan=number - this widget will span several rows
 |      sticky=NSEW - if cell is larger on which sides will this
 |                    widget stick to the cell boundary
 |  
 |  grid_configure(self, cnf={}, **kw)
 |      Position a widget in the parent widget in a grid. Use as options:
 |      column=number - use cell identified with given column (starting with 0)
 |      columnspan=number - this widget will span several columns
 |      in=master - use master to contain this widget
 |      in_=master - see 'in' option description
 |      ipadx=amount - add internal padding in x direction
 |      ipady=amount - add internal padding in y direction
 |      padx=amount - add padding in x direction
 |      pady=amount - add padding in y direction
 |      row=number - use cell identified with given row (starting with 0)
 |      rowspan=number - this widget will span several rows
 |      sticky=NSEW - if cell is larger on which sides will this
 |                    widget stick to the cell boundary
 |  
 |  grid_forget(self)
 |      Unmap this widget.
 |  
 |  grid_info(self)
 |      Return information about the options
 |      for positioning this widget in a grid.
 |  
 |  grid_remove(self)
 |      Unmap this widget but remember the grid options.
 |  
 |  location = grid_location(self, x, y)
 |      Return a tuple of column and row which identify the cell
 |      at which the pixel at position X and Y inside the master
 |      widget is located.
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Methods inherited from tkinter.XView:
 |  
 |  xview(self, *args)
 |      Query and change the horizontal position of the view.
 |  
 |  xview_moveto(self, fraction)
 |      Adjusts the view in the window so that FRACTION of the
 |      total width of the canvas is off-screen to the left.
 |  
 |  xview_scroll(self, number, what)
 |      Shift the x-view according to NUMBER which is measured in "units"
 |      or "pages" (WHAT).
 |  
 |  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
 |  Methods inherited from tkinter.YView:
 |  
 |  yview(self, *args)
 |      Query and change the vertical position of the view.
 |  
 |  yview_moveto(self, fraction)
 |      Adjusts the view in the window so that FRACTION of the
 |      total height of the canvas is off-screen to the top.
 |  
 |  yview_scroll(self, number, what)
 |      Shift the y-view according to NUMBER which is measured in
 |      "units" or "pages" (WHAT).

In [5]:
win = GraphWin(title="My Window")
win.close()

Use with positional parameters

In [10]:
def happy():
    print("Happy birthday to you!")
In [11]:
def sing(first, middle, last):
    # Person should be a string for somebody's name
    happy()
    happy()
    # Using standard string formatting techniques
    #print("Happy birthday, dear {0} {1} {2}…".format(first, middle, last))
    
    # Uses interpolated strings in Python 3.6 or later
    print(f"Happy birthday, dear {first} {middle} {last}…")
    happy()
In [12]:
sing("James", "T", "Kirk")
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday, dear James T Kirk…
Happy birthday to you!
In [13]:
sing(first="James", middle="T", last="Kirk")
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday, dear James T Kirk…
Happy birthday to you!
In [14]:
sing(middle="T", last="Kirk", first="James", )
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday, dear James T Kirk…
Happy birthday to you!
In [15]:
sing(last="Kirk", first="James")
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
TypeError                                 Traceback (most recent call last)
<ipython-input-15-39a4c69aed6d> in <module>()
----> 1 sing(last="Kirk", first="James")

TypeError: sing() missing 1 required positional argument: 'middle'
In [16]:
def sing_kw(first="John", middle="A", last="Smith"):
    # Person should be a string for somebody's name
    happy()
    happy()
    # Using standard string formatting techniques
    #print("Happy birthday, dear {0} {1} {2}…".format(first, middle, last))
    
    # Uses interpolated strings in Python 3.6 or later
    print(f"Happy birthday, dear {first} {middle} {last}…")
    happy()
In [17]:
sing_kw()
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday, dear John A Smith…
Happy birthday to you!
In [18]:
sing_kw(first="Jack")
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday, dear Jack A Smith…
Happy birthday to you!
In [19]:
sing_kw(first="James", middle="T", last="Kirk")
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday, dear James T Kirk…
Happy birthday to you!
In [27]:
def sing_kw2(first="John", middle="A", last="Smith", ):
    # Person should be a string for somebody's name
    happy()
    happy()
    # Using standard string formatting techniques
    #print("Happy birthday, dear {0} {1} {2}…".format(first, middle, last))
    
    # Uses interpolated strings in Python 3.6 or later
    print(f"Happy birthday, dear {first} {middle} {last}…")
    happy()
In [22]:
def sing_kw3(age, first="John", middle="A", last="Smith"):
    # Person should be a string for somebody's name
    happy()
    happy()
    # Using standard string formatting techniques
    #print("Happy birthday, dear {0} {1} {2}…".format(first, middle, last))
    
    # Uses interpolated strings in Python 3.6 or later
    print(f"Happy birthday, dear {first} {middle} {last}…")
    print(f"You are {age} years old!")
    happy()
In [25]:
sing_kw3(34, first="Jack", middle="A", last="Smith")
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday to you!
Happy birthday, dear Jack A Smith…
You are 34 years old!
Happy birthday to you!
In [26]:
def foo(*args, **kwargs):
    pass