# Undergraduate Program

## Physics Courses

The department offers a variety of courses at all levels. Below is a list of all physics (PHY) courses.

- PHY 099 INTRO MTH METHODS SCI & ENGR
(formerly PHY 101) A review of basic problem-solving techniques in pre-calculus mathematics (algebra, geometry, trigonometry) in the forms usually found in the equations of science and engineering. Prerequisite for PHY 121 and PHY 121P. Credit can be gained by passing the Basic Math Assessment Exam, offered in the first week of the semester. (0 credit, Fall semester, P/F only).

*Prerequisites: None**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 100 THE NATURE OF THE PHYSICAL WORLD
This is an introductory course designed especially for students in the humanities and other non-scientific fields who are interested in learning something about the physical world. Topics include the scale of the universe from galaxies to atoms and quarks; the fundamental forces of nature, motion and relativity, energy, electromagnetism and its everyday applications, the structure of matter, atoms, light and quantum mechanics.There are no prerequisites, no background knowledge is required and the material will be presented with very little mathematics. Substantial use will be made of demonstrations.

*Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 101 INTRO MTH METHODS SCI & ENGR
Please see PHY 099

*Prerequisites: None**Last Offered: Fall 2015* - PHY 102 VISIONS OF THE MULTIVERSE
This is an introductory course designed especially for students in the humanities and other non-scientific fields who are interested in learning about science, physics and concepts (esp. scientific concepts) of a multiple universe reality. Topics include the nature of science, Newton's laws, relativity, light, quantum mechanics, the nature of particles and forces, and cosmology. In the course of surveying the modern scientific view of the universe, a number of serious concepts of a multiuniverse reality will be examined, including the many-worlds view of quantum mechanics, and fractal and cyclical cosmologies. There are no prerequisites, no background knowledge is required and the material will be presented with very little mathematics. Substantial use will be made of demonstrations. This course is intended to be equivalent to our Physics 100 course in terms of satisfying cluster requirements.

*Prerequisites: None.**Last Offered: Fall 2017* - PHY 103 PHYSICS OF MUSIC
A study of the physical basis of musical phenomena with a focus on demonstration and experimentation. Theories of musical instruments acoustics, spectral analysis, room acoustics, and special topics selected by the class and instructor. Two lectures and one lab per week. Time in lab at the end of the semester is devoted to individual student projects, often involving construction and analysis of student instruments. The course is open to any student with a strong interest in both science and music.

*Prerequisites: None.**Last Offered: Fall 2016* - PHY 104 UNCERTAINTY & CHANCE IN PHY
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2015* - PHY 109 QUANTUM WORLD
This is an introductory course for non-physics major students who want to learn some basic principles of quantum mechanics. We plan to approach these concepts by relating them to human experience in everyday life. The course is designed with a lot of demonstrations, in many of which the students play a role of either quantum objects or the observers. The course is conceptual and the use of mathematics is limited to bare minimum. We plan to cover: - Properties of waves - Double-slit diffraction experiment - Particle in a box and quantization of states - Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle - Pauli principle and how to build an atom - The birth of new particles and the birth of the universe

*Prerequisites: There are no prerequisites and no background knowledge is required.**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 113 GENERAL PHYSICS I
First semester of a two-course sequence suitable for students in the life sciences. Newtonian particle mechanics, including Newton's laws and their applications to straight-line and circular motions, energy; linear momentum, angular momentum; and harmonic motion; sound, wave properties, and fluid dynamics. Calculus used as needed. In addition to Two 75-minute lectures, One three-hour laboratory every other week and one workshop per week is required. Laboratory and workshop registration is done at the time of the course registration. This course is offered in the Fall, Spring and Summer Session I (A-6).

*Prerequisites: MTH 141 or 161 (MTH 161 may be taken concurrently)**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 114 GENERAL PHYSICS II
Second course of a two-semester sequence suitable for students in the life science. Electricity and magnetism, optics, electromagnetic waves; modern physics (introduction to relativity, quantum physics, etc.). In addition to the Two 75-minute lectures each week, One workshop/recitation each week and One approximately three-hour laboratory every other week is required. Laboratory and workshop registration is done at the time of the course registration. This course is offered in both the Spring, Summer Session II (B-6). For Workshop Questions Email: Linda Cassidy - lcassidy@pas.rochester.edu For Lab Questions Email: Lysa Wade - lwade3@ur.rochester.edu

*Prerequisites: PHY 113; MTH 143 or MTH 162 (MTH 162 may be taken concurrently).**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 121 MECHANICS
Course will make extensive use of geometry, algebra and trigonometry and simple integration and differentiation. Prior knowledge of introductory calculus (simple integration and differentiation) is required. Passing of the Math placement test (PHY 099) for PHY 121 is required. First semester of a three-course sequence for students planning to major in physics, other physical sciences, and engineering. Motion in one and two dimensions; Newton's laws; work and energy; conservation of energy; systems of particles; rotations; oscillations; gravity; thermodynamics. In addition to Two 75-minute lectures each week, One workshop each week and One three-hour laboratory every other week is required. Laboratory and workshop registration is done at the same time as the course registration. This course is offered in Spring and Summer session (A-6).

*Prerequisites: PHY 099; MTH 161 and MTH 162 (MTH 162 may be taken concurrently). EAS 101, 102, 103, 104,105 or 108 can be accepted in place of PHY 099.**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 121P MECHANICS MASTERY/SELF-PACED
Course will make extensive use of geometry, algebra and trigonometry and simple integration and differentiation. Prior knowledge of introductory calculus (simple integration and differentiation) is required. First semester of a three-course sequence for students planning to major in physics, other physical sciences, and engineering. Motion in one and two dimensions; Newton's laws; work and energy; conservation of energy; systems of particles; rotations; oscillations; gravity; thermodynamics. Lectures are video-taped and accessed through Blackboard. Laboratory registration is done at the same time as the course registration.

*Prerequisites: PHY 099; MTH 161 and MTH 162 (MTH 162 may be taken concurrently). EAS 101, 102, 103, 104, 105 or 108 can be accepted in place of PHY 099.**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 122 122/142 E&M LAB M/LAB B
Second semester of a three-course sequence for students planning to major in physics, other physical sciences and engineering. Coulomb's Law through Maxwell's equations; electrostatics, electrical potential; capacitors; electric fields in matter; current and circuits; magnetostatics; magnetic fields in matter; induction, A.C. circuits; electromagnetic waves. In addition to Two 75-minutes lectures each week, One workshop each week and One three-hour laboratory every other week is required. The Laboratories and workshop registration is at the time of the course registration. Offered Fall, Summer Session II (B-6). For Workshop Questions Email: Linda Cassidy - lcassidy@pas.rochester.edu For Lab Questions Email: Lysa Wade - lwade3@ur.rochester.edu

*Prerequisites: PHY 099 (formerly PHY 101); and PHY 113 or 121; and MTH 143 or MTH 162. EAS 101, 102, 103, 104, 105 or 108 can be accepted in place of PHY 099.**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 122P 122/142 E&M LAB M/LAB B
Second semester of a three-course sequence for students planning to major in physics, other physical sciences and engineering. Coulomb's Law through Maxwell's equations; electrostatics, electrical potential; capacitors; electric fields in matter; current and circuits; magnetostatics; magnetic fields in matter; induction, A.C. circuits; electromagnetic waves. The lectures and demonstrations are video-taped and put on Blackboard for student access. Workshop attendance is strongly recommended. One three-hour laboratory every other week is required. The Laboratories and workshop registration is at the time of the course registration. Offered Fall. For Workshop Questions Email: Linda Cassidy - lcassidy@pas.rochester.edu For Lab Questions Email: Lysa Wade - lwade3@ur.rochester.edu

*Prerequisites: PHY 099 (formerly PHY 101); and PHY 113 or 121; and MTH 143 or MTH 162. EAS 101, 102, 103, 104, 105 or 108 can be accepted in place of PHY 099.**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 123 WAVES & MODERN PHYSICS
Third semester of a three-course sequence for students planning to majoring in physics, other physical sciences and engineering. Wave motion, physical optics, special relativity, photoelectric effect, Compton effect, X-rays, wave properties of particles. Schrödinger's equation applied to a particle in a box, penetration of a barrier, the hydrogen atom, the harmonic oscillator, the uncertainty principle, Rutherford scattering, the time-dependent Schrödinger equation and radioactive transitions, many electron atoms and molecules, statistical mechanics and selected topics in solid state physics, nuclear physics and particle physics. In addition to Two 75-minutes lectures each week, One workshop each week and One three-hour laboratory every other week is required. Laboratory and workshop registration is at the same time as the course registration. Offered in the Spring.

*Prerequisites: PHY 121; PHY 122; MTH 163 or MTH 165 (MTH 165 may be taken concurrently).**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 141 MECHANICS (HONORS)
First semester of a three-course honors sequence, recommended for prospective departmental concentrators and other science or engineering students with interest in physics and mathematics. Topics studied are similar to those in PHY 121, but are covered in greater depth. These include symmetries, vectors, coordinate and velocity transformations, motion in one and two dimensions, Newton's Laws, work and energy, conservation of energy and momentum, special relativity, systems of particles, gravity and Kepler's laws, rotations, oscillations, molecular theory and thermodynamics. In addition to Two 75-minute lectures each week, One recitation each week and One three-hour laboratory every other week is required. The laboratory and recitation registration is at the same time as the course registration.

*Prerequisites: MTH 161 (MTH 161 may be taken concurrently); successful completion of a high-school physics course.**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 142 122/142 E&M LAB M/LAB B
Third semester of a three-course honors sequence (PHY 141, 143, 142), recommended for prospective departmental concentrators and other science or engineering students with a strong interest in physics and mathematics. Topics are the same as those of PHY 122 but in greater depth. These topics include Coulomb's Law through Maxwell's equations; electrostatics, electrical potential; capacitors; electric fields in matter; current and circuits; magnetostatics; magnet fields in matter; induction; A.C. circuits; waves.In addition to Two 75-minute lectures each week, One workshop each week and One three-hour laboratory every other week is required. The laboratories and workshop registration is at the same time as the course registration. For Workshop Questions Email: Linda Cassidy - lcassidy@pas.rochester.edu For Lab Questions Email: Lysa Wade - lwade3@ur.rochester.edu

*Prerequisites: PHY 141 or performance at or above the B+ level in PHY 121, MTH 162 or MTH 172 (MTH 172 may be taken concurrently)**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 143 WAVES AND MODERN PHYSICS (HONORS)
Second semester of a three-course honors sequence, recommended for prospective departmental concentrators and other science or engineering students with a strong interest in physics or mathematics. Topics are the same as PHY 123 but in greater depth. Introductory examinations of Bohr's atomic model; Broglie waves; momentum and energy quantization; Heisenberg's uncertainty relation; Schrodinger's cat; electron spin; photon interferenc;, and Bell's inequalities; selected applications to solid-state, nuclear, particle, and astrophysics. In addition to Two 75-minute lectures each week, One workshop each week and One three-hour laboratory every other week is required. The laboratories and workshop registration is at the same time as the course registration.

*Prerequisites: PHY 141 or permission of the instructor; MTH 162 (MTH 162 may be taken concurrently)**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 181 MECHANICS LABORATORY
Laboratories experiments in Mechanics: statistics and measurement; acceleration of gravity; conservation of energy and momentum; moment of inertia and oscillations; and mechanical equivalent of heat. This Laboratory uses the P/F University grading system.

*Prerequisites: For transfer students who have taken a course equivalent to PHY 113 or PHY 121, but have not taken the labs.**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 182 ELECTROMAGNETISM LAB
Laboratory experiments in electricity and magnetism: Coulomb's Law; electric fields; measurement of the absolute voltage and capacitance, electricity and magnetism of the electron; superconductivity; and electric circuits. This Laboratory uses the P/F University grading system.

*Prerequisites: For transfer students who have taken a course equivalent course to PHY 122, but have not taken the labs.**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 183 MODERN PHYSICS LAB
Laboratory experiments in modern physics: velocity of sound; geometrical optics and imaging; the wave nature of light and microwaves; the spectrum of atomic hydrogen; and the Frank Hertz experiment. This Laboratory uses the P/F University grading system.

*Prerequisites: For transfer students who have taken a course equivalent to PHY 123, but have not taken the labs.**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 184 EXPERIMENTS IN ELECTRICITY, MAGNETISM AND MODERN PHYSICS
Laboratory experiments in electricity, magnetism, and modern physics: Coulomb's Law; electric fields; electricity and magnetism ratio of the electron, superconductivity;, electric circuits; geometrical optics and imaging; the wave nature of light; and the spectrum of atomic hydrogen. This Laboratory uses the P/F University grading system.

*Prerequisites: For transfer students who have taken course equivalent to PHY114, but have not taken the labs.**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 217 ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM I
Review of vector calculus; electrostatic field and potential; boundary value problems solved with orthogonal functions; the multiple expansion and dielectrics; the magnetic field and vector potential.

*Prerequisites: PHY 123 or PHY 143; MTH 281 (MTH 281 may be taken concurrently).**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 218 ELECTRICITY & MAGNETISM II
Electromagnetic induction; displacement current; Maxwell's equations; the wave equation; plane electromagnetic waves; Poynting vector; reflection and refraction; radiation; waveguides; transmission lines; propagation of light; radiation by charged particles; relativistic formulation of Maxwell's equations.

*Prerequisites: PHY 217**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 227 THERMODYNAMICS & STATISTICAL MECHANICS
Multiplicity of physical states, equilibrium entropy and temperature, Boltzmann factor and partition function, statistical approach to free energy, chemical potential, distribution functions for ideal classical and quantum gases. Applications to chemical reactions, thermal engines, equations of state and phase transitions, applications.

*Prerequisites: PHY 237; MTH 281 (MTH 281 may be taken concurrently)**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 233 MUSICAL ACOUSTICS
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 235W CLASSICAL MECHANICS I
Mathematical introduction; review of elementary mechanics; central force problems; conservation theorems and applications; Fourier and Green's functions; variational calculus and Lagrangian multipliers; Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulation of mechanics is introduced and applied; oscillations; normal mode theory; rigid body dynamics. The course is designed to satisfy part of the upper-level writing requirement.

*Prerequisites: PHY 121 or PHY 141, and MTH 281 (MTH 281 may be taken concurrently)**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 237 QUANTUM MECHANICS OF PHYSICAL SYSTEMS
Introduction to quantum mechanics with emphasis on applications to physical systems. Includes Schroedinger theory; solutions to the one-dimentional Schroedinger equation; the hydrogen atom; and selected applications from atomic and molecular physics; quantum statistics; lasers; solids; nuclei; and elementary particles.

*Prerequisites: PHY 122/142; PHY 123/143; MTH 165/174 (MTH 164/174 may be taken concurrently).**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 243W ADVANCED EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES I
Students work in pairs and each team is expected to perform three or four experiments from a variety of available setups such as Berry's phase with light, Universal chaos, lifetime of cosmic ray muons, optical pumping, electron diffraction's, etc. This is a hands-on laboratory with most experiments under computer control. This course can be used towards satisfying part of the upper-level writing requirement.

*Prerequisites: PHY 217, PHY 237 and MTH 164 (MTH 164 may be taken concurrently)**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 244W ADVANCED EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES II
A continuation of PHY 243W with greater emphasis on independent research and construction of more complicated instrumentation. This course can be used to satisfy part of the upper-level writing requirement.

*Prerequisites: PHY 217, 237, MTH 164 (MTH 164 may be taken concurrently).**Last Offered: Fall 2015* - PHY 245W THE ADVANCED NUCLEAR SCIENCE EDUCATION LABORATORY
The students enrolled in ANSEL will develop a sophisticated understanding of our terrestrial radiation environment and of some of the important applications of nuclear science and technology. They will acquire practical skills in the routine use of radiation detectors, monitors, and electronics, and develop the ability to assess radiation threats and prospects of their abatement. The four in-depth ANSEL experiments are designed to help recreate a type of well-rounded, competent experimental nuclear scientist who is able to analyze an experimental problem, to select, design, and set up appropriate nuclear instrumentation, and to conduct required measurements. The laboratory sessions will meet twice a week for 2 hours and 40 minutes. The students are expected to write detailed lab reports on their work, and give a presentation on of their experiments at the end of the semester. In addition to the laboratory component of ANSEL students will attend a weekly lecture (1 hour and 15 minutes per week).

*Prerequisites: PHY 123/143; not open to first-years and sophomores.**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 246 QUANTUM THEORY
Formalism of quantum theory with more advanced applications than PHY 237. Includes postulates of Quantum Mechanics; function spaces, Hermitian operators, completeness of basis sets; superposition, compatible observables, conservation theorems; operations in abstract vector space, spin and angular momentum matrices; addition of angular momentum; perturbation theory, and simple scattering theory.

*Prerequisites: PHY 237; MTH 281 (or close equivalent).**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 250 ADVANCED LABORATORY PROJECT
Similar in level to PHY 243 and PHY 244, but based on extended experimental projects by students as individuals or in small groups. The projects, chosen by mutual agreement between the students concerned and the professor, are intended to provide experience with the concepts and techniques of modern experimental research work. A particular project may be selected from almost any area of modern physics.

*Prerequisites: PHY 243 or PHY 244* - PHY 251 INTRODUCTION TO CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS
An emphasis on the wide variety of phenomena that form the basis for modern solid state devices. Topics include crystals; lattice vibrations; quantum mechanics of electrons in solids; energy band structure; semiconductors; superconductors; dielectrics; and magnets. (same as MSC 420, ECE224, ECE424, PHY420).

*Prerequisites: PHY 217, 227, 237**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 252 BIOMEDICAL ULTRASOUND
This course provides analyses of the physical bases for the use of high-frequency sound in medicine (diagnosis, therapy, and surgery) and biology. Topics include acoustic interactions of ultrasound with gas bodies (acoustic cavitation and contrast agents), thermal and nonthermal biological effects of ultrasound, ultrasonography, dosimetry, hyperthermia, and lithotripsy.

*Prerequisites: MTH 163, 164, PHY 122, 142, or permission of instructor. Cross-listed with BME 251/451.**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 253 BIOLOGICAL PHYSICS
The course is designed for students of physical science or engineering background who are interested in biological and medical physics. Topics include fundamentals of biological physics, diffusive motion in biological system, thermal equilibrium and steady state, forces and energetics in biology, biochemical reaction, corporative transitions, biological membranes, neural system, and biophysical techniques. The materials are presented at the level of Nelson Biological Physics.

*Prerequisites: PHY 227, 237 or permission of instructor**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 254 NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS
This course is designed for physics majors interested in nuclear and particle physics. The course introduces the Standard Model of particle physics. The unification of electromagnetic and weak interactions is discussed. Higgs mechanism of electroweak symmetry is introduced. Finally, the fundamental interactions of elementary particles and their constituents are reviewed, with emphasis on issues pertaining to the conservation of quantum numbers and symmetries observed in high-energy collisions. (cross-listed with PHY 440).

*Prerequisites: PHY 237**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 255 INTRODUCTION TO FLUID DYNAMICS
Fluid properties; fluid statics; kinematics of moving fluids; the Bernoulli equation and applications; control volume analysis differential analysis of fluid flow; inviscid flow, plane potential flow; viscous flow, the Navier-Stokes equation; dimensional analysis, similitude; empirical analysis of pipe flows; flow over immersed bodies, boundaries layers, lift and drag. (cross-listed with ME225).

*Prerequisites: MTH 163 or MTH 165 and MTH 164; PHY 121-123 or PHY 141-143 or ME 120 & ME 123**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 256 COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS
Introduction of numerical and computational methods, with special emphasis on their utilities and applications in contemporary physics topics: Intro to programming language, numerical considerations, ordinary differential equations I & II, partial differential equations I & II, analysis of data, random numbers and evaluation, growth and fractal, Monte Carlo method.

*Prerequisites: PHY 141-143 or PHY 121-123 (PHY 123/143 may be taken concurrently).**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 257 ULTRASOUND IMAGING
Introduction to the principles and implementation of diagnostic ultrasound imaging. Topics include linear wave propagation and reflection, fields from pistons and arrays, beamfoaming, B-mode image formation, Doppler, and elastography. Project and final project. (Crosslisting PHY 467, BME 253/453, ECE 251/451)

*Prerequisites: PHY 252 or BME 251/451 or BME 230/ECE 241 or equiv.**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 258 ENERGY SCIENCE TECH SCTY
Interdisciplinary course on contemporary energy science, technology and policy issues, part of a sustainability minor. Historical development, present state and projected demands of US- American energy production and distribution within the boundary conditions of climate change and global competition. Provides scientific-technological knowledge of energy production and distribution technologies, energy efficiency, assessment of environmental and biological risks. Present energy policies and prospects for sustainable energy strategies. Student research projects use published data and simulated model energy scenarios. (Not open to first-years).

*Prerequisites: PHY 121-123 or PHY 141-143, CHM 131, MTH 165**Last Offered: Spring 2015* - PHY 259 Plasma Physics: Astronomy to Z-pinch
This course explores the fundamental physics of plasmas and how it can be applied to astrophysics, fusion energy, propulsion, manufacturing and medicine. The course uses Python as a numerical gateway to explore how the properties of plasmas in different regimes, from black hole accretion disks to particle accelerators. Besides homeworks and a mid-term exam, the course requires the completion of a project using Jupyter notebooks. http://gourdain.pas.rochester.edu/index.php/classes/phy259/info

*Prerequisites: PHY 121 and PHY 122**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 261 INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION
Complex representation of waves; propagation of waves, diffraction; scalar diffraction theory; Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction and application to measurement; partially coherent light; diffraction and image formation; optical transfer function; coherent optical systems, optical data processing, and holography (same as OPT 261).

*Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 262 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY
Continuation of PHY 261. Vector analysis; microscopic and macroscopic forms of Maxwell's equations; energy flow in electromagnetic fields; dipole radiation from Lorentz atoms; partially polarized radiation; spectral linebroadening; dispersion; reflection and transmission; crystal optics; electro-optics; introduction to quantum optics (same as OPT 262).

*Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 263 COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN OPTICS
This course introduces techniques transforming continous problems to descrete mathematical models. Students learn computatinal methods for solving prolems in optics using high-level software. Includes laboratories. (cross-listed OPT211).

*Prerequisites: MTH 162 and concurrent enrollment in MTH 164**Last Offered: Fall 2010* - PHY 264 LASER SYSTEMS
Fundamentals and applications of lasers and laser systems, including optical amplification, cavity design, beam propagation and modulation. Emphasis is placed on developing the basic principles needed to design new systms, as well as an understanding of the operation of those currently in use. Cross-listed OPT 224.

*Prerequisites: Simple quantum mechanics and scalar diffraction theory. Optics majors: OPT 241 & OPT 261. MTH 163 or MTH 165 is recom.**Last Offered: Fall 2013* - PHY 276 BIOMEDICAL OPTICS
Major Topics are biomedical spectroscopy (absorption, fluorescence, Raman, elastic scattering); propagation of photons in higly scattering media (such as tissue); techniques for high-resolution imaging in biological media: confocal imaging, multiphoton imaging, and optical coherence tomography. (Cross-listed OPT 476).

*Prerequisites: PHY 227, 246, MTH 165. Open to upper-level undergraduates with instructor permission.**Last Offered: Fall 2013* - PHY 311A MECHANICS&CHAOTIC DYNAMICS
Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, canonical transformations, Hamilton-Jacobi equations, chaotic dynamics, periodic orbits, Stable and unstable orbits, Julia and Fatou sets, Convergence of Newton's Iteration, KAM theory. (Cross-listed with P411).

*Prerequisites: PHY 235, instructor's permission.**Last Offered: Fall 2012* - PHY 321A CONDENSED MATTER I
This course is a 2-credit version of the corresponding graduate-level course PHY 521. The course is offered the first half of the semester and is identical to the first half of the graduate course.

*Prerequisites: PHY 251 and permission of instuctor.**Last Offered: Spring 2010* - PHY 322A INTRODUCTION TO DATA ACQUISITION IN PHYSICS LABORATORY
No longer being offered, equivalent course see PHY 256.

- PHY 325 PHY OF RADIOTHERAPY I (NO LONGER OFFERED)
*No description**Last Offered: Fall 2010* - PHY 331 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS
This is a 2-credit version of the corresponding graduate -level course PHY 531. The course is offered the first half of the semester and is identical to the first half of the graduate course. (cross-listed PHY 531/OPT 551).

*Prerequisites: Contact Instructor* - PHY 331A INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS
This is a 2-credit version of the corresponding graduate -level course PHY 531. The course is offered the first half of the semester and is identical to the first half of the graduate course. (cross-listed PHY 531/OPT 551).

*Last Offered: Fall 2012* - PHY 354 COSMOLOGY
Introduction to Cosmology, covering the following broad topics: Introduction to the universe, introduction to general relativity, cosmological models and the Fridemann-Walker universe, and thermodynamics of the early universe. This course consists of the first half of AST 554/PHY 554.

*Prerequisites: None.**Last Offered: Spring 2012* - PHY 371 NANOMETROLOGY LABORATORY
This is a required, 4-credit-hour course for the Certificate in Nanoengineering Program. It consists of three laboratory experimental modules accompanied by lecture materials: Module 1. Scanning electron microscopy (McIntyre); Module 2. Atomic force microscopy (Papernov); Module 3. Confocal microscopy (Lukishova). The laboratory components will use the facilities of the University of Rochester Integrated Nanosystems Center, the Institute of Optics and the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Topics covered in the 50-min lab lectures include the nature of nanoscale surface forces in solids and principles of scanning force microscopy, function and capabilities of the scanning electron microscope, and confocal fluorescence microscopy of single nanoemitters. Students are expected to have completed a sequence in introductory physics with a strong performance in electromagnetism, the basics of modern physics and physical optics. Junior and Senior level.

*Prerequisites: Junior or Senior standing with the following courses complete: OPT 201 and OPT 202 or PHY 243.**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 373 PHYSICS AND FINANCE
Introduction to econophysics and the application of statistical physics models to financial markets. Parallels between physical and financial phenomena will be emphasized. Topics will include random walks and Brownian motion, introduction to financial markets and efficient market theory, asset pricing and the Black-Scholes equation for pricing options. The course will also explore non-Gaussian Levy processes and the applicability of power law distributions and scaling to finance. Other possible topics include turbulence and critical phenomena in connection with market crashes. Cross listed as PHY373/573.

*Prerequisites: PHY 227 or equivalent (can be taken concurrently) or instructor's permission.**Last Offered: Spring 2018* - PHY 381A PARTICLE PHYSICS I
This course is the first six weeks of the Graduate-level course PHY 581. Topics include particle interactions and their symmetries. The particle spectrum and its classification. calculation of elementary processes. The quark model. CP violation. Accelerators and experimental techniques. It is a 2 credit course.

*Prerequisites: Permission of instructor required.**Last Offered: Spring 2012* - PHY 382A PARTICLE PHYSICS II
This course is the same as PHY 582 offered the first six weeks of the semester. Topics covered are: Electroweak theory, and experimental evidence in support of it. Gauge theories and spontaneous symmetry breaking. QCD and color SU(3). Grand unification and recent advances. Particles and cosmology. (Cross-listed with PHY582)

*Prerequisites: Permission of instructor and PHY 381A.**Last Offered: Spring 2013* - PHY 383A SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHYSICS
Special Topics in Physics

- PHY 385 PHYSICS TEACHING INTERNSHIP
The student typically spends one or two semesters teaching an introductory physics laboratory or workshop section, working with a graduate TA. Faculty supervision is augmented by training, ongoing teaching seminars, and a constructive evaluation process.

*Prerequisites: Permission of Instructor**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 386 PHYSICS TEACHING INTERNSHIP
The student typically spends one or two semesters teaching an introductory physics laboratory or workshop section, working with a graduate TA. Faculty supervision is augmented by training, ongoing teaching seminars, and a constructive evaluation process.

*Prerequisites: Permission of Instructor**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 386V FULL TIME VISITING STUDENT
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 387 TEACHING INTERNSHIP II, PEDAGOGY & GROUP LEADERSHIP
This course is designed as the second follow-up course for an experienced Workshop Leader, Laboratory or Recitation Teaching Intern who plans to use this experience to fulfill part of the requirements for the Citation for achievement in College Leadership. The TI is expected to attend the weekly Leader Training meeting which offers specialized support and feedback, as well as training/seminars to develop leadership skills, foster ongoing communication among faculty members and TIs, and to provide an environment for review of study group related issues. Students spend the semester teaching one workshop, lab or recitation section during the Spring semester intro physics courses: PHY 114, PHY 121, PHY 123, PHY143 and AST 142. Additional requirements are: Weekly content meetings with supervising professor, giving feedback to other leaders in a constructive evaluation process and a project designed in concert with the supervising professor and the PHY 387 instructor. (similar to CAS 355). Students

*Prerequisites: Department and Permission of instructor.**Last Offered: Spring 2014* - PHY 388 SUPERVISED TEACHING I
The student typically spends one or two semesters teaching an introductory physics laboratory or workshop section, working with a graduate TA. Faculty supervision is augmented by training, ongoing teaching seminars, and a constructive evaluation process.

*Prerequisites: Permission of instructor**Last Offered: Fall 2018* - PHY 389 SUPERVISED TEACHING II
The student typically spends one or two semesters teaching an introductory physics laboratory section, working with a graduate TA. Faculty supervision is augmented by training, ongoing teaching seminars, and a constructive evaluation process. Student must formally apply by contacting Janet Fogg at 5-6679.

*Prerequisites: Department and Permission of instructor**Last Offered: Spring 2019* - PHY 390 SUPERVISED TEACHING
Introduction to the techniques of physics instruction, active observation, and participation in the teaching of an undergraduate course under the guidance of a faculty member. (Same as AST 390).

*Prerequisites: Department and Instructor's permission**Last Offered: Spring 2019* - PHY 390A SUPERVISED TEACHING
This course is designed for an experienced undergraduate planning to be a Workshop Leader, Laboratory or Recitation Teaching Intern (TI), Students spend the semester teaching one workshop, laboratory or recitation section during the Fall/Spring semester introductory physics courses. This course may be taken more than once.

*Prerequisites: Department and Instructor's permission**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 391 INDEPENDENT STUDY
Independent study project under the direction of a faculty member of the Department of Physics and Astronomy.

*Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 391W INDEPENDENT STUDY
Normally open to seniors concentrating in physics. This course may be used to satisfy part of the upper level writing requirement.

*Prerequisites: Permission of instructor**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 393 SENIOR PROJECT
Completion of an independent research project under the direction of a faculty member of the Department of Physics and Astronomy.

*Last Offered: Spring 2019* - PHY 393W SENIOR PROJECT
Completion of an independent research project under the direction of a faculty member of the Department of Physics and Astronomy. This course includes a writing component and can be used to satisfy part of the upper-level writing requirement.

*Last Offered: Spring 2019* - PHY 395 INDEPENDENT RESEARCH
Independent research project under the direction of a faculty member of the Department of Physics and Astronomy.

*Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 395W RESEARCH IN PHYSICS
Independent research project under the direction of a faculty member of the Department of Physics and Astronomy. This course includes a writing component and can be used to satisfy part of the upper-level writing requirement.

*Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 401 MATHEMATICAL METHODS OF OPTICS & PHYSICS
Study of mathematical techniques such as contour integration, transform theory, Fourier transforms, asymptotic expansions, and Green's functions, as applied to differential, difference, and integral equations. (Prior Titles: Complex Analysis and Diff Equations & Mathematical Methods of Theoretical Optics). (Cross-listed with OPT411).

*Prerequisites: MTH 164, MTH 282, or equivalent**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 402 PROBABILITY
Combinatorials. Random variables, moments, generating functions. Various probability distributions. Markov chains..

*Prerequisites: None.**Last Offered: Spring 2013* - PHY 403 DATA SCIENCE I: MODERN STATISTICS & EXPLORATION OF LARGE DATA SETS
Review the fundamentals of probability and statistics and learn to apply them in commonly encountered practical data analysis problems, including parameter estimation, hypothesis testing, regression, simulation, and advanced error analysis (both statistical and systematic). This course will have theoretical and practical components. Once the theoretical concepts are covered, the emphasis will be to apply them to actual calculations with data. Students will learn to use a software package employed in the manipulation and analysis of large data sets, and they will write their own computer programs to carry out calculations using supplied data sets.

*Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 404 LINEAR SPACES
Vector, Banach, Hilbert spaces. Linear operators, Lebesque integral. Integral equations. Spectra.

*Prerequisites: MTH 235 or equivalent**Last Offered: Spring 2013* - PHY 405 GEOMETRICAL METHODS OF PHYSICS
Topological spaces. Manifolds. Vectors and Tensors. Lie groups. Riemannian Manifolds. Applications.

*Prerequisites: MTH 235 & 236 or equivalent**Last Offered: Fall 2017* - PHY 406 SYMMETRIES IN PHYSICS
Finite groups. Compact and non-compact Lie groups and Lie algebras. Group representation theory.

*Prerequisites: PHY 401, PHY 404, or equivalent**Last Offered: Spring 2010* - PHY 407 QUANTUM MECHANICS I
The Physical Basis of Quantum Mechanics. The Schrödinger Wave Equation. Discrete Eigenvalues: Bound States. Matrix Formulation of Quantum Mechanics. Angular momentum and spin. Approximation Methods for Bound States. Radiation Physics.

*Prerequisites: PHY 246 or permission of instructor**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 408 QUANTUM MECHANICS II
Symmetries including parity, lattice translations, and time reversal. Stationary-state and time-dependent perturbation theory, Stark and Zeeman effects, fine structure, transition probabilities. Scattering theory with applications. Elementary QED, multipole and plane-wave expansions, properties of the photon. The Dirac equation and elementary mass renormalization.

*Prerequisites: PHY 407 or equivalent**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 411 MECHANICS & CHAOTIC DYNAMICS
Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, canonical transformations, Hamilton-Jacobi equations, chaotic dynamics, periodic orbits, Stable and unstable orbits, Julia and Fatou sets, Convergence of Newton's Iteration, KAM theory. (Offered the first 8 weeks as 311A).

*Prerequisites: PHY 235**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 412 COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR ENGR & SCI (ASYMPTOTIC METHODS)
Computational solutions to coupled nonlinear partial differential equations arising in engineering and physics. Emphasis on current problems and techniques.

*Prerequisites: ME 402, or PHY 401, or OPT 411, or consent of the instructor. Some FORTRAN experience desirable.**Last Offered: Spring 2012* - PHY 413 GRAVITATION
Motivation for a metric theory of gravity, principle of equivalence, principle of general covariance, mathematical tools, curvature tensor, Einstein field equations and solutions, energy momentum tensor, weak field approximation. Applications and optional topics include experimental tests; black holes; relativistic star models; cosmological models; early stages of evolution of the universe; gravitational waves.

*Prerequisites: AST 231**Last Offered: Spring 2019* - PHY 415 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY I
An advanced treatment of electromagnetic phenomena. Electromagnetic wave propagation, radiation, and waveguides and resonant cavities, diffraction, electrodynamic potentials, multipole expansions, and covariant electrodynamics.

*Prerequisites: PHY 401 or concurrently**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 418 STATISTICAL MECHANICS
Review of thermodynamics; general principles of statistical mechanics; micro-canonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles; ideal quantum gases; applications to magnetic phenomena, heat capacities, black-body radiation; introduction to phase transitions. (Cross-listed with MSC418).

*Prerequisites: PHY 227 or equivalent; PHY 407, PHY 408 concurrently**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 420 INTRODUCTION TO CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS
An emphasis on the wide variety of phenomena that form the basis for modern solid state devices. Topics include crystals; lattice vibrations; quantum mechanics of electrons in solids; energy band structure; semiconductors; superconductors; dielectrics; and magnets.

*Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 422 MED IMAGING-THEORY&IMPLEMT
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2010* - PHY 426 PHYSICS OF RADIOTHERAPY II
*No description* - PHY 428 PHYSICS OF RADIOTHERAPY II
*No description* - PHY 429 ORGANIC ELECTRONICS
Basic optical and electronic processes of organic molecules and polymers. Charge transport and luminescent properties of organic solids. Metal/organic contacts and charge injection. Applications in thin-film organic electronic devices including organic light emitting diodes, solar cells, photoconductors, and transistors. Review of selected papers.

*Last Offered: Spring 2012* - PHY 431 NANO-OPTICS
Nano-optics is an emerging new field of study motivated by the rapid advance of nanoscience and technology. Traditionally, the diffraction limit prevents us from optically interacting with matter on a nanometer scale. However, in recent years several new approaches have been put forth to 'shrink' the diffraction limit or to even overcome it. The interaction of light with nanoscale matter renders unique information about structural and dynamical properties. Therefore, optical techniques are of great importance for the study of biological and solid-state nanostructures. The course in nano-optics addressess the key issues of optics on the nanometer scale. Starting with an angular spectrum representation of optical fields the role of inhomogeneous evanescent fields is discussed. Among the topics are: Theory of strongly focused light, point spead functions, resolution criteria, confocal microscopy near-field optical microscopy, and resolution criteria.

*Prerequisites: Advanced calculus and vector analysis, electromagnetic theory (OPT 462 or equiv.) and quantum mechanics (OPT412 or equiv.)* - PHY 432 QUANTUM INFORMATION LAB
*No description* - PHY 434 QUANTUM & NANO OPT LAB
This advanced optics teaching laboratory course will expose students to cutting-edge photon counting instrumentation and methods with applications ranging from quantum information to biotechnology and medicine. It will be based on quantum information, the new, exciting application of photon counting instrumentation. As much as wireless communication has impacted daily life already, the abstract theory of quantum mechanics promises solutions to a series of problems with similar impact on the twenty-first century. Major topics will be entanglement and Bells inequalities, single-photon interference, single-emitter confocal fluorescence microscopy, Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlations/photon antibunching. Photonic based quantum computing and quantum cryptography will be outlined in the course manuals as possible applications of these concepts and tools. The full course will consist of four laboratory experiments and a special final meeting of students oral presentations.

*Prerequisites: PHY 123 or PHY 143**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 435 PRINCIPLES OF LASERS
This course provides an up-to-date knowledge of modern laser systems. Topics include quantum mechanical treatments to two-level atomic systems, optical gain, homogeneous and inhomogenous broadening, laser resonators and their modes, Gaussian beams, cavity design, pumping schemes, rate equations, Q switching, mode-locking, various gas, liquid, and solid-state lasers.

*Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 436 SPECTROSCOPY AND KINETICS
This course covers the basic theory and experimental practice of spectroscopy in molecules and condensed matter. A general review of electromagnetic waves is followed by classical and quantum mechanical descriptions of the interaction between light and matter. These basic principles are then applied to vibrational and electronic spectroscopy. This course will also cover the principles of kinetic analysis in the context of time-resolved spectroscopies used to quantify the dynamics of photoexcited species. We will refer to examples from the literature to illustrate the experimental implementation and interpretation of advanced spectroscopic techniques.

*Last Offered: Fall 2010* - PHY 437 NON-LINEAR OPTICS
Fundamentals and applications of optical systems based on the nonlinear interaction of light with matter. Topics to be treated include mechanisms of optical nonlinearity, second-harmonic and sum and difference-frequency generation, photonics and optical logic, optical self-action effects including self-focusing and optical soliton formatin, optical phase conjugation, stimulated Brillouin and stimulated Raman scattering, and selection criteria of nonlinear optical materials., (Cross-listed OPT 467).

*Prerequisites: Open to any graduate student or undergraduates who have taken OPT 261, 262, 224, and 225.**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 438 OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS
The course is designed to give the student a basic understanding of the optical communications systems while making one aware of the recent technological advances. The following topics are covered: components of an optical communication system, propagation characteristics of optical fibers, light wave sources such as light-emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers, optical receivers, noise analysis and bit error rate, coherent, multichannel, and solution-based communication systems. Cross-listed OPT428

- PHY 439 NONLINEAR OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY
This course will cover a broad range of optical spectroscopic techniques and will focus on theoretical methods for their microscopic interpretation. A general correlation function methodology for analyzing nonlinear optic experiments in terms of molecular dynamics and relaxation processes will be developed. The relationships among ultrafast (time-domain) and frequency-domain techniques will be discussed. Applications will be made to fluorescenece and Raman spectroscopy, three and four wave mixing, photon echo, hole burning and transient gratings in the gas phase and condensed phases. Optical materials and nanostructures will be discussed. (Cross-listed OPT 459, CHM 459).

- PHY 440 NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS
This course is designed for physics majors interested in the development of nuclear and particle physics. The course describes the properties of nuclei and various models useful for the description of nuclear properties. The models and ideas include the liquid drop model, shell model, collective model, radioactivity, fission, and fusion. Properties of particle interactions with matter are covered, and used to develop principles of detections used in nuclear and particle experiments. The physical ideas behind various existing accelerators are discussed. Finally, the fundamental interactions of elementary particles and their constituents are reviewed, with emphasis on issues pertaining to the conservation of quantum numbers and symmetries observed in the high-energy collisions. (Cross-listed with PHY 254).

*Prerequisites: PHY 123, PHY 237 (or instructor permission)**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 445 ADVANCED NUCLEAR SCIENCE EDUCATION LABORATORY
The students enrolled in ANSEL will develop a sophisticated understanding of our terrestrial radiation environment and of some of the important applications of nuclear science and technology. They will acquire practical skills in the routine use of radiation detectors, monitors, and electronics, and develop the ability to assess radiation threats and prospects of their abatement. The four in-depth ANSEL experiments are designed to help recreate a type of well-rounded, competent experimental nuclear scientist who is able to analyze an experimental problem, to select, design, and set up appropriate nuclear instrumentation, and to conduct required measurements. The laboratory sessions will meet twice a week for 2 hours and 40 minutes. The students are expected to write detailed lab reports on their work, and give a presentation on of their experiments at the end of the semester. In addition to the laboratory component of ANSEL students will attend a weekly lecture (1 hour and 15 minutes per week).

*Prerequisites: PHY 123/143; not open to undergraduate first-years and sophomores.**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 446 NUCLEAR SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY I
(Formerly CHM 466) - Nuclear technologies of measurement, accelerators and radiation detection, effects and applications of radiation. Fundamental particles interactions, quark model. Nuclear masses, sizes, and shapes. Overview of microscopic and macroscopic models of the nucleus. Nuclear radioactivity and decay modes. Introduction to nuclear reaction theory, classical potential scattering, semi- classical and quantal models of scattering, nuclear excitation,and mass transfer. Mathcad computer projects. Two 75 minute lectures per week, home work problems, and computer simulations.

*Last Offered: Fall 2012* - PHY 451 PHYSICS OF ASTROPHYSICS I
One half of the required 2 part sequence (can be taken before or after AST 462). Focuses on the physics of radiation production by ionized and atomic matter, the transfer of radiation through matter, and what we measure from astrophysical objects. Concepts are developed from first principles and many applications in astrophysics are studied.

*Last Offered: Spring 2011* - PHY 452 PHYSICS OF ASTROPHYSICS II
Continuation of PHY 451. (Cross-listed with AST462).

*Prerequisites: PHY 451**Last Offered: Spring 2012* - PHY 453 SPEC TOP:HIGH ENERGY DEN PHY
*No description**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 454 INTRODUCTION TO PLASMA PHYSICS
Orbit theory, adiabatic invariants, collective effects, two-fluid and MHD equations, waves in plasma, transport across magnetic fields and in velocity space. (same as ME 434). (Course was listed as PHY 426).

*Prerequisites: PHY 217, PHY 218, or equivalent**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 455 INTRODUCTION TO PLASMA PHYSICS II
Vlasov equation, Landau damping. VanKampen modes, two-stream instability, micro-instabilities, introduction to kinetic theory, shield clouds, Thomson scattering, and the Fokker-Planck equation.

*Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 456 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
Acoustics; linearized equations for homogeneous media; mathematical theory of linear waves; waves in stratified atmospheres; geometrical acoustics. Finite amplitude compressible flow; one-dimensional waves and the theory of characteristics; shock waves; steady two-dimensional flow. Radiative transfer; emission and absorption in gases; equation of radiative transfer; radiative effects on waves. (Cross-listed with ME 436).

*Prerequisites: ME 225, ME 201, or MTH 281**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 457 INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW
The study of incompressible flow covers fluid motions which are gentle enough that the density of the fluid changes little or none. Topics: Conservation equations. Bernoulli’s equation, the Navier-Stokes equations. Inviscid flows; vorticity; potential flows; stream functions; complex potentials. Viscosity and Reynolds number; some exact solutions with viscosity; boundary layers; low Reynolds number flows. Waves.

*Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 458 GEOMETRIC METHODS IN FLUIDS
This course will focus on applying methods of Riemannian geometry to fluid mechanics. At an elementary level, it involves using curvilinear co-ordinates to solve Euler and Navier-Stokes equations in various geometries; e.g., rotating and self-gravitating fluids. At a deeper level, the Euler equations are the geodesic equations in the infinite dimensional group of volume preserving diffeomorphisms. We can understand the instabilities of a fluid in terms of the sectional curvature of this space (the work of Arnold). Flow along the principal directions of this metric relates this back to "force-free" flows in fluid mechanics. Self-gravitating fluids of interest in astrophysics, relativistic fluids of nuclear physics,fluids near a critical point and quantum fluids such as Bose condensates will also be studied this way.

*Last Offered: Spring 2018* - PHY 459 TURBULENCE
*No description**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 462 MEDICAL IMAGING THEORY & IMPLEMENTATION
Physics and implementation of X-ray, ultrasonic, and MR imaging systems. Special attention is given to the Fourier transform relations, reconstruction algorithms of X-ray and ultrasonic-computed tomography, and MRI.

*Prerequisites: ECE 242. See ECE 452/OPT 452/BME 452.**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 464 BIOLOGICAL PHYSICS
With recent advances in light microscopy, it has become easier to visualize living biological systems. The course will focus on how to extract physical and quantitative data from light microscopy images, covering various methods of fluorescence imaging (ie. Confocal, TIRF, Lightsheet, SIM, STORM, PALM, STED, FRET) and discuss the physical principles behind each. We’ll use real data sets from labs around the world to explore how data is processed and turned into quantitative measurements. The course will serve as an introduction to image analysis and cover topics including segmentation and particle tracking, and how to use these processes to extract physical data about the systems (e.g. microrheology and traction force microscopy). While no previous coding experience is required, students will be expected to develop their own image analysis routines. This course is intended for graduate students with a basic knowledge of physics and an interest in learning about applying quantitative microscopy to research.

*Prerequisites: PHY 227, 237 or instructor's permission**Last Offered: Spring 2019* - PHY 465 PHY OF RADIOTHERAPY I (NO LONGER OFFERED)
*No description**Last Offered: Fall 2010* - PHY 466 PHYSICS OF RADIOTHERAPY II (NO LONGER OFFERED)
Continuation PHY 465.(Cross-listed with PHY326).

*Prerequisites: Permission of instructor only* - PHY 467 ULTRASOUND IMAGING
Introduction to the principles and implementation of diagnostic ultrasound imaging. Topics include linear wave propagation and reflection, fields from pistons and arrays, beamfoaming, B-mode image formation, Doppler, and elastography. Project and final report. (Crosslisting PHY 257, BME 253/453, ECE 251/451).

*Prerequisites: BME 451/251, PHY 252 or BME 230/ECE 241 or equiv.**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 468 PHYSICS OF RADIOTHERAPY II (NOT OFFERED ANY LONGER)
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2010* - PHY 475 PARTICLE PHYSICS
The department hosts the PARTICLE (Physics and Rochester Teachers Inventing Classroom Experiments) program. Students (high school teachers) study the methods and techniques of experimental particle physics research by participating in the design and construction of detectors for classroom-based cosmic ray experiments. Prerequisite: permission of instructor.

- PHY 490 SPECIAL TOPICS
*No description**Last Offered: Fall 2018* - PHY 491 MASTER'S READINGS IN PHYSICS
Special study or work, arranged individually for master’s candidates.

*Last Offered: Fall 2017* - PHY 492 CERTIFICATE IN TEACHING OF COLLEGE PHYSICS OR PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY
After serving as a lead Teaching Assistant (TA), the student teaches a course during the University!=s summer session. Students successfully completing the Graduate Teaching program are awarded a Certificate of College Teaching in Physics and Astronomy to be presented during the graduation ceremony in May. Please visit department website for more information

*Prerequisites: PHY 498, 499, 597 or PHY 598, 599, 597**Last Offered: Summer 2017* - PHY 493 Special Topics I
Subject matter to be selected by instructor and students on an ad hoc basis in specific areas at the master's level.

*Last Offered: Spring 2012* - PHY 494 SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHYSICS II
Subject matter to be selected by instructor and students on an adhoc basis in specific areas at the master's level.

- PHY 495 MASTER'S RESEARCH IN PHYSICS
*No description**Last Offered: Fall 2016* - PHY 497 CERTIFICATE IN COLL TEACHING
*No description**Last Offered: Summer 2019* - PHY 498 SUPERVISED TEACHING ASSISTANT I
This course is designed for a student to be Laboratory or Recitation Teaching Assistant (TA). Typically, the student spends the semester teaching two laboratories or up to four recitations during the Fall semester for the introductory physics courses: PHY 113, PHY 122, PHY 141, PHY 142, or introductory astronomy course: AST 111, or teaching one or more recitation(s): AST 111, PHY 113, PHY 122, PHY 141, PHY 142, or a 200 level undergraduate physics or astronomy course. Attendance of the weekly teaching seminars PHY 597-Fall, giving feedback to other leaders, and a constructive evaluation process are required. This course is non-credit and may be taken more than once.

*Prerequisites: Students are required two weeks prior to the beginning of the Fall semester, to attend a two-day rigorous training program. Students prepare and present a short model recitation and are video taped for self-evaluation.**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 499 SUPERVISED TEACHING ASST II
Continuation of PHY 498.

*Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 501 ADV MATH METHODS IN OPTICS
*No description**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 509 INTRODUCTION NON-RELATIVISTIC MANY BODY SYSTEMS
The basic concepts and techniques of many body systems and how they are used to ectract their physical properties. Techniques to be covered are second quantization, Green's functions, linear response theory, perturbative expansions based on Feynman diagrams, variational methods, and functional methods. Electron gas and other normal Fermi systems, Superconductivity, Interacting Bose systems and condensation, Quantum magnetic systems, Localization, etc.

*Prerequisites: PHY 407, PHY 408, or equivalent**Last Offered: Fall 2012* - PHY 510 ADVANCED QUANTUM MECHANICS
Review of Dirac equation, covariance and transformation properties of the Dirac equation, propagator theory, applications, second order corrections and renormalization, Klein Gordon equation, non-electromagnetic interactions.

*Last Offered: Spring 2010* - PHY 511 FIELD THEORY
Path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, free harmonic oscillator, fermionic oscillator, instantons, free scalar field, Green’s functions, generating functional statistical mechanics as Euclidean field theory, partition function as a path integral, free Bose gas, interacting quanta, Green’s functions and scattering amplitudes at tree level, symmetry, Ward identities, symmetry breaking and Goldstone theorem, effective action at one loop, 1d Ising model, 2d Ising model, duality, high and low temperature expansions, transfer matrix, scaling of coupling with lattice size.

*Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 512 RENORMALIZATION
Review of basic concepts from PHY510, Non-Abelian gauge theories (QCD), Path integral quantization of gauge theories, BRST invariance, Ward identities, Ghost free gauges, Symmetry breaking and Higgs mechanism, Standard model, Regularization, Renormalization theory, Anomalous Ward identities, Schwinger model, Renormalization group equation and solutions, Callan-Symanzik equation.

*Prerequisites: PHY 509 or PHY 510**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 513 MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: FROM SPINS TO BRAINS
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: From Spins to Brains. See BCS 513.

*Prerequisites: PHY 422/ECE 452**Last Offered: Spring 2014* - PHY 516 E&M THEORY II
A continuation of PHY 415 covering special relativity, radiation from moving charges, radiation damping, scattering and electrodynamics in material media.

*Prerequisites: PHY 401 and PHY 415**Last Offered: Fall 2012* - PHY 519 Statistical Mechanics II
A continuation of PHY 418, involving the theory of imperfect gases, phase transition, and Brownian motion.

*Prerequisites: PHY 402, 408, 418**Last Offered: Spring 2019* - PHY 521 CONDENSED MATTER I
This course covers the fundamentals of solid state physics, and it answers the question of why solids behave differently than individual atoms. Topics covered include: the free-electron model of solids, crystal structure, x-ray diffraction, Bloch's Theorem, band structure, the tight-binding model, crystal vibrations, phonons, magnetism, and superconductivity.

*Prerequisites: PHY 407, PHY 408, or permission of instructor**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 522 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS II
Electron-phonon interaction, transport, magnetism, and topics of current interest such as superconductivity or localization, to be determined by the instructor. (same as MSC 551).

*Prerequisites: PHY 521**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 523 SOLID STATE QUANTUM OPTICS
Subject matter to be selected by the instructor from among topics of current interest in solid state. (Cross-listing OPT 592).

*Last Offered: Fall 2014* - PHY 524 SPEC TOP IN SOLID STATE PHY
Subject matter to be selected by the instructor from among topics of current interest in solid state. (same as MSC 552 and CHE 552).

*Prerequisites: PHY 521 and PHY 522 or permission of instructor* - PHY 525 DATA SCIENCE II: COMPLEXITY AND NETWORK THEORY
As the number of interacting degrees of freedom (or agents) in a given system increases, its behavior often changes qualitatively, and not only quantitatively. Complexity is the emerging field of research, which investigates the shared underlying concepts and principles of such systems. It finds its applications in Physics, Computer Science, Mathematics, Biology, Social Sciences, Economy, and more. In this introductory course we will focus on these common features and their utilization in understanding complex systems. They will include for example: Fractals, non-linearity and chaos, adaptation and evolution, critical and tipping points, patterns formation, networks modeling, feedback loops, emergence and unpredictability, etc. Students in the course will be given ample opportunities to study farther these systems and/or techniques that are of particular interest to them. Prerequisites include basic knowledge in differential equations, linear algebra, and probability.

*Prerequisites: MTH 165, PHY 403 or equivalent**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 526 SPIN BASED ELECTRONICS
One example in the research of spin-based electronics (spintronics) which is motivated by the natural ordering of ferromagnetic phase can add to large scale electronics circuits. Generally speaking, we are left to manipulate the information whereas nature takes care of preserving it. The course is intended for students who are interested in research frontiers of future electronics technologies. The course begins with introduction to the basic physics of magnetism and of quantum mechanical spin. Then it covers aspects of spin transport with emphasis on spin-diffusion in semiconductor. (crosslisted with ECE 520/MSC 520).

*Prerequisites: PHY 521 is strongly recommended or permission of instructor.**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 527 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE
Computational Neuroscience in Physics. See BCS 547.

*Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 531 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM OPTICS
Classical and quantum mechanical theories of the interaction of light with atoms and molecules, with emphasis on near resonance effects, including coherent nonlinear atomic response theory, relaxation and saturation, laser theory, optical pulse propagation, dressed atom-radiation states, and multi-photon processes. (same as OPT 551).

*Prerequisites: PHY 401, PHY 402, PHY 407, PHY 408, PHY 415 or permission of instructor**Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 532 QUANTUM OPTICS OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD
Properties of the free quantized electromagnetic field, quantum theory of coherence, squeezed states, theory of photoelectric detection, correlation measurements, atomic resonance fluorescence, cooperative effects, quantum effects in nonlinear optics.

*Prerequisites: PHY 531 is recommended.**Last Offered: Spring 2019* - PHY 533 QUANTUM OPTICS OF THE ATOM-FIELD INTERACTION
Subject matter to be selected from topics of current interest in quantum optics. (same as OPT 553).

*Prerequisites: PHY 531, PHY 532**Last Offered: Fall 2017* - PHY 534 MECHANICAL EFFECTS IN THE ATOM-FIELD INTERACTION
Subject matter to be selected from topics of current interest in quantum optics. (same as OPT 554).

*Last Offered: Fall 2013* - PHY 535 MODERN COHERENCE THEORY
Theory of random process, stationarity ergodicity, the auto-correlation function and the cross-correlation function of random process. Spectrum of a stationary random process and the Wiener-Khintchine theorem, Second-order coherence theory in the space-time domain, the mutual coherence function, the degree of coherence. Second-order coherence theory in the space-frequency domain, the cross spectral density, mode representation, propagation problems. Inverse radiation problems, effects of source correlations and scattering of partially coherent light from deterministic and from random media. (same as OPT 592).

*Prerequisites: PHY 531, PHY 532**Last Offered: Fall 2017* - PHY 536 SPECL TOPICS IN QUANTUM OPT
The instructor will choose a topic of current interest in Quantum Optics. (same as OPT 556).

*Prerequisites: PHY 531, PHY 532 or permission of intstructor.* - PHY 537 STATISTICAL OPTICS
Elements of applied probability theory - probability theory, random variables, density and distribution functions, moments of a random variable, characteristic and moment generating functions, and the central-limit theorem. Intro to stochastic processes stationarity and ergodicity, correlation functions, power of Wiener spectrum, Gaussian processes, Poisson point processes, compound Poisson point processes. Coherence properties of optical fields; temporal coherence, spatial coherence, propagation of the mutual coherence function, Van Cittert-Zernike theorem, effects of partial coherence on imaging systems. Laser Speckle and its applications: speckle statistics, addition of speckle patterns, integrated speckle, speckle statistics in the far field and in the image plane, space-time correlation functions, speckle velocimetry, and speckle interferometry. Photoelectric detection of light - semiclassical model for photoelectric detection, effects of stochastic fluctuations, low light levels, pattern recognition.

*Prerequisites: OPT 461 and OPT 462; students are encouraged to take PHY 404 concurrently.* - PHY 538 ADV TOP:LIGHT WAVE TECHNOLOGY
This course is design to provide the student understanding of the recent advances in the field of lightwave technology. The following topics will be covered: Dispersive and nonlinear effects in optical fibers; linear and nonlinear properties of fiber Bragg gratings, linear and nonlinear properties of fiber couplers, fiber interferometers: including Fabry-Perot resonators, nonlinear fiber-loop mirrors, Mach-Zehnder interferometers, different kinds of fiber amplifiers and lasers, pulse-compression techniques, design of modern fiber-optic communication systems, optical solitons and their applications. (Cross-listed with OPT528).

*Prerequisites: OPT 461, OPT 428 recommended, but not required.* - PHY 539 WAVEGUIDE OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES
This course examines in detail principles of operation of modern optoelectronic devices with an emphasis on waveguide devices. Topics generally include dielectric optical waveguides, coupled-mode theory, passive components, electro-optic devices, semiconductor lasers, semiconductor optoelectronic devices, and fiber lasers and amplifiers.(Cross-listed with OPT568).

- PHY 541 NUCLEAR STRUCTURE I
Nuclear models and symmetries in nuclei; shell model, models pertinent in regions of strong pairing interactions, including BCS and generalized seniority; the microscopic theory of vibrations; rotational structures in heavy and light nuclei.

*Prerequisites: PHY 408 or permission of instructor.* - PHY 542 NUCLEAR STRUCTURE II
Electromagnetic and weak transitions; sum rules, introduction to nuclear reactions, theory of nuclear forces.

*Prerequisites: PHY 541* - PHY 544 SPEC TOPICS:NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Subject matter to be selected from among advanced topics in the theory of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions.

*Prerequisites: PHY 541, 542* - PHY 546 NUCLEAR SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY II
Experimental and theoretical studies of heavy-ion scattering and reaction mechanisms; semi-classical and quantal scattering theory; Coulomb excitation; few-nucleon transfer; damped heavy-ion reactions; fusion and fission processes; statistical approaches to complex nuclear reaction mechanisms. Cross-listed with CHM 566.

*Prerequisites: PHY446/CHM466**Last Offered: Spring 2014* - PHY 552 MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS
Basic equations of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The induction equation and kinematic MHD. Magnetohydrostatic equilibria and stability. MHD waves. Behavior of magnetic flux tubes. Viscous MHD flows. Dynamo theory. Selected applications, such as electromagnetic pumps and flowmeters, sunspots, the and the solar dynamo.

*Last Offered: Spring 2014* - PHY 553 LASER-PLASMA INTERACTIONS
Breakeven conditions for inertial confinement fusion. The coronal plasma. Inverse bremsstrahlung absorption. Resonance absorption. Parametric instabilities. Nonlinear plasma waves. Zakharov equations and collapse.

*Last Offered: Spring 2018* - PHY 554 COSMOLOGY
Introduction to cosmology, covering the following broad topics: Introduction to the universe, introduction to general relativity, cosmological models and Fridemann-Walker universe, thermodynamics of early universe, particle physics of the early universe, and the formation of large-scale structure (Same as AST 554).

*Prerequisites: None.**Last Offered: Fall 2015* - PHY 555 ADVANCE TOPICS IN PLASMA PHY
Courses vary year to year. Topics include controlled fusion reactor concepts, including laser fusion, energy in the future, space plasmas, and astrophysical plasma phenomena. (same as ME 545).

- PHY 556 HYDRODYNAMIC STABILITY & TURBULENCE
Introduction to probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistical continuum theory. Experimental facts of turbulent motion. Kinematics and dynamics of homogeneous turbulence. Isotopic turbulence. The closure problem. Hopf's functional formalism and its generalizations. Mixing-length and phenomenological theories. Turbulent shear flows. Transition from laminar to turbulent shear flows. The general concept of stability theory.

*Last Offered: Fall 2017* - PHY 557 PLASMA STABILITY
Stability of magnetically confined palsma, delta-W formalism, double adiabatic equation, comparison theorem, sheer stabilization, minimum-beta fields, resistive instabilities, Tokamak and Mirror stability theory (Same as ME 534).

*Prerequisites: ME 434 or permission of the instructor.* - PHY 558 INTRO-INERTIAL CONFINEMENT FUSION
Fusion energy. Lawson criterion for thermonuclear ignition. Fundamentals of implosion hydrodynamics, temperature and density in spherical implosions. Laser light absorption. Implosion stability. Thermonuclear energy gain.(Cross-listed with ME 533).

*Last Offered: Spring 2019* - PHY 564 HIGH ENERGY ASTROPHYSICS
A survey of current research topics in high energy astrophysics, Topics drawn from X-ray and gamma-ray astrophysics, supernovae and planetary nebulae, binary accretors, astrophysics of compact objects (black holes, neutron stars, white dwarfs), plasma astrophysics, magnetic field-particle interactions, cosmic rays, astrophysical jets, active galactic nuclei. (Cross-listed with AST 564).

*Last Offered: Fall 2013* - PHY 573 PHYSICS AND FINANCE
Introduction to econophysics and the application of statistical physics models to financial markets. Parallels between physical and financial phenomena will be emphasized. Topics will include random walks and Brownian motion, introduction to financial markets and efficient market theory, asset pricing and the Black-Scholes equation for pricing options. The course will also explore non-Gaussian Levy processes and the applicability of power law distributions and scaling to finance. Other possible topics include turbulence and critical phenomena in connection with market crashes. Cross listed as PHY373/573.

*Last Offered: Spring 2018* - PHY 581 PARTICLE PHYSICS I
Particle interactions the their symmetries. The particle spectrum and its classification. Calculation of elementary processes. The quark model. CP violation. Accelerators and experimental techniques. (Cross-listed with 381A)

*Prerequisites: PHY 408, PHY 509 (may be taken concurrently)**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 582 PARTICLE PHYSICS II
Electroweak theory, and experimental evidence in support of it. Gauge theories and spontaneous symmetry breaking. QCD and color SU(3). Grand unification and recent advances. Particles and cosmology.

*Last Offered: Spring 2018* - PHY 584 SPEC TOPICS IN PARTICLE PHY
*No description**Last Offered: Fall 2013* - PHY 591 PHD READINGS IN PHYSICS
Special study or work, arranged individually.

*Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 593 QUANTUM NANOSTRUCTURES
*No description**Last Offered: Fall 2017* - PHY 594 INTERNSHIP
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 594A INTERNSHIP
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 595 PHD RESEARCH IN PHYSICS
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 595A PHD RESEARCH IN ABSENTIA
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 595B PHRSRCH IN ABSENTIA ABROAD
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 597 PHYSICS TEACHING INTERNSHIP
A (Fall) - Noncredit course given once per week, required of all first-year graduate students. The seminar consists of lectures and discussions on various aspects of being an effective teaching assistant, including interactions with undergraduate student body and cross-cultural issues. B (Spring) - Noncredit course given once per week required of all first-year graduate students. Members of the faculty discuss topics in their curent area of research interest.

*Prerequisites: None.**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 598 TEACHING WORKSHOP LEADER PEDAGOGY TRAINING
This course is designed for a student to be a Workshop Leader Teaching Assistant (TA). Typically, the TA attends the weekly Workshop Leader Training meeting that offers specialized support and training in group dynamics, learning theory, and science pedagogy for students facilitating collaborative learning groups for science and social science courses. The TA teaches three to four workshops in one of the fall semester introductory physics courses: PHY 113, PHY 122, PHY 141 or PHY 142. Additional requirements are: Attendance of the weekly Graduate Teaching Seminars PHY 597-Fall, giving feedback to other leaders and a constructive evaluation process. This course is non-credit and may be taken more than once.

*Last Offered: Fall 2019* - PHY 599 PEDAGOGY & GROUP LEADERSHIP
This course is designed as a follow-up course for an experienced Workshop Leader, titled a lead Workshop Leader Teaching Assistant (TA). Typically, the TA attends the weekly Workshop Leader Training meeting that offers specialized support and training to develop leadership skills, to foster ongoing communication among faculty members and study group leaders, and to provide an environment for review of study group related issues. Students spend the semester teaching three to four workshops during the Spring semester introductory physics courses.

*Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 890 SUMMER IN RESIDENCE - MA
*No description**Last Offered: Summer 2012* - PHY 895 CONT OF MASTER'S ENROLLMENT
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 897 MASTERS DISSERTATION
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 897A MASTERS DISSERTATION ABSENTI
*No description**Last Offered: Fall 2014* - PHY 899 MASTER'S DISSERTATION
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 985 LEAVE OF ABSENCE
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 986V FULL TIME VISITING STUDENT
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 990 SUMMER IN RESIDENCE
*No description**Last Offered: Summer 2019* - PHY 995 CONT OF DOCTORAL ENROLLMENT
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 997 DOCTORAL DISSERTATION
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 997A DOCT DISSERTATN IN ABSENTIA
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 997B DOC DISS IN-ABSENTIA ABROAD
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 999 DOCTORAL DISSERTATION
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 999A DOCT DISSERTATN IN ABSENTIA
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020* - PHY 999B PHD IN-ABSENTIA ABROAD
*No description**Last Offered: Spring 2020*